Birds — not just our neighbors on the planet, is home of the air element, the most romantic of the existing ones. But not so
In Ukraine, experts have recorded over 400 species of birds, 87 of them, alas, are listed in the Red book of Ukraine, is on the verge of extinction.
Why disappear the largest bird of the country?
Among birds, the Champions can not be called a bustard. It is the largest (in weight) flying bird in the world, its meat, unfortunately, is edible to humans. The bustard lives in the steppe and semi-desert. In the Ukrainian steppes any more half-two centuries ago there were thousands of great bustard. Now this bird has practically disappeared. In recent decades there have been attempts of reintroduction, i.e. the return, including in the Kharkiv region. But they had not. While the bustard care, she lives in closed farms or nature reserves. But will she live in the wild and whether to restore the population — remains an open question. Today in Ukraine nests only 150-200 females bustard. If you do not take decisive efforts, we may forever lose this unique bird. That’s why Feldman Ecopark is planned in the near future to develop and implement a program to save the great bustard in Ukraine. We are going to bring to this important project of our foreign partners. The program is designed for 25 years, it will unite the efforts of environmentalists, ornithologists and enthusiasts to revive the population of the great bustard.
Of the large endangered birds of Ukraine you can think of several eagle species: steppe eagle, booted eagle, Imperial eagle, white-tailed eagle etc., Their disappearance is partly due to the starvation. These birds need large areas, which would be found available for hunting wild game. But, alas, where people took to farming, animals as a rule, almost does not remain. In any case, not enough of them to such large predators, like eagles, can live enough for further breeding population.
In addition, the eagles need for nesting in calm areas with strong trees, in the branches of which they make their large nests. But we, sorry, man, those are the trees trying to cut down and sell before the others. Another reason for the disappearance of the eagles lies in the fact that due to the use of chemicals in the fields and getting them into the body of small animals, and then in the body of an eagle, these birds becomes brittle egg shells. And the eagle, Chicks vysizhivaya, search has the habit to stand on the clutch. Usually a strong shell to withstand the weight of birds, but now the eagles are often simply crushed the eggs and the offspring dies.
Eagle and other large raptors, today is a very rare species, and, if there’s a nest of these birds, we need to protect it, because maybe it is one of the last in Ukraine or in the field.
In the Red book got a lot of feathered inhabitants of the wetlands: some species of herons, sandpipers, Curlew, black stork, etc. Because the man always wanted to involve more of the territories for agricultural land, it has actively carried out the inning. And you who dwell in them birds are strictly related to the environment. They need variety and a large area for hunting. And we are talking about a whole set of requirements: there should be forest, expanses of open water, marshes, meadows…
Steppe birds in Ukraine and, in particular, in the Kharkiv region is also very unlucky, because the steppe was actively opened and continue to open up, despite the fact that the experience of foreign countries shows the futility of such management. The Demoiselle and common cranes — they are, unfortunately, remains less.
Not spared the troubles and nocturnal raptors — owls, owls, barn owl. They also suffered because of his addiction to the old hollow trees which are still on long-outdated notions of jealously destroy the Rangers and the utility of post-Soviet countries (and cherish throughout the civilized world). Not enough night predators and game, to destroy civilization along with wildlife. Yes and pesticides used by the farmers against rodents, the cause of death of these birds.
How to protect birds?
With the onset of winter, birds need help to survive. In the wild they can adapt and survive through the remaining dry grass seed, of the fruit on bushes and trees, etc., hunting small animals (if it is an omnivorous or carnivorous birds), finding a place in the wintering insects.
However, if birds live in the city, it all depends on the person because the natural food supply for them there is little. Many people believe that birds can feed in the garbage cans. But the fact that the remains of the food that feeds man, fit as a permanent food is not for all birds. In addition, in recent years, we take the trash out in plastic bags and break them to get to some feed, can only large birds — crows, magpies, pigeons, etc. and for small birds, this polyethylene is an insurmountable obstacle. It is therefore important during cold weather (especially when the snow falls or the ice) to help the birds survive this difficult period primarily simple hanging feeders.
The first year, the staff and the young naturalists of Feldman Ecopark have feeders for the birds and teach this skill to all visitors of the eco-Park. With the onset of winter, the feeders are hung in trees in urban parks, courtyards, etc. by selecting the most convenient and safe for birds. If you are not able to make wooden or plywood feeder “all the rules” — it does not matter. For “bird’s dining room” approach and other available materials. For example, today many people hang on trees the trough, cut from plastic water bottles. Maybe they don’t look as dressy as traditional, but believe me, thanks to these simple devices from starvation saved thousands of birds. What is interesting to watch their behavior during feeding!
It is best for feeding birds to use mixtures of different cereals, sunflower seeds, cereal seeds: wheat, oats, barley. You can store summer berries, seeds, wild herbs, wild grasses. In the trough, you can pour the bread crumbs from the table. But roasted sunflower seeds for the birds to give undesirable because their body to digest such food is not fit. The simpler and coarser food, the better.
We should not forget about the shelters for birds in places where they can hide in winter. Generally, birds are attracted by the old trees, which the city is also not so much. One of the scientists calculated that an old oak is home to about a thousand different species of animals. Some time in the former USSR it was believed that old trees should be cut, and instead plant new. This can be true only if the tree emergency. Ideally, it should stay as long as possible, giving shelter to thousands of living creatures, including birds. If all of our parks, squares and alleys “to comb one size fits all”, landed the same young trees, very soon the city violated the balance of nature, because in nature everything is interconnected, and the trees likewise, cannot exist without birds, and birds without trees.
Now the public environmental and human rights organizations proposed to make a number of changes in Ukrainian legislation, including to prohibit the felling of trees during the nesting of birds (because of this, thousands of Chicks, broken nests with clutches of eggs). In the near future the Verkhovna Rada will be filed a package of bills that protect nature.
Birds are dying from plastic entering the water bodies, the particles of which they are mistaken for edible food. Therefore, Ukraine needs to follow the experience of other developed countries and ban single-use plastic bags, replacing them with paper or biodegradable.
Anyone who ever been in Germany or the United States, France or any other civilized country, must have noticed the abundance pasted on the Windows and other glass surfaces of figures of birds. This is the work of environmental organizations and ordinary citizens. But not hitting on these figures, not as a fashion statement. It turns out that the bird, picking up speed, unable to distinguish the open window from glass. A lot of birds crashing on the glass surface. And when he saw a figure with a silhouette of his predatory counterpart, the bird instantly realizes the danger and changes the direction of flight. This way it is possible to save thousands of birds. Alas, in Ukraine, almost none of the window you will not see a figure, but taking care of the birds is ultimately a concern for the future of our planet.
The author of the people’s Deputy of Ukraine Alexander Feldman