From osmosis to the space. Scientific breakthroughs of the year

От осмоса до космоса. Научные прорывы года

Scientific and technical progress for the year 2016 – the fight against epidemics and cancer, space travel and saving the species.

Not only in Ukraine, worldwide more expensive life and confidence in the future is weakening, fueled by a media that increasingly operate on the principle of “good news does not happen” and people are less likely to follow news about scientific inventions and victories against epidemics.

Ukraine is now experiencing strong political and economic changes that will affect its history and development. Likely developments in the scientific and technical world could pass due to the tragic events of recent years.

So Корреспондент.net 14 results the main achievements of mankind in 2016, selected by Popular Science.

 

1. Pandas already do not disappear

От осмоса до космоса. Научные прорывы года

AR

In September, the international Union for conservation of nature changed the status of giant pandas in the red book from “endangered” to “vulnerable.”

Positive shifts in number of species were seen over the decade to 2014, during which the number of giant pandas increased by 17 percent.

In addition, the Louisiana black bear is also out of the red list, and populations of the monarch butterfly came back to normal.

 

2. SpaceX brings the space

От осмоса до космоса. Научные прорывы года

SpaceX

In April, the company Elon musk SpaceX failed to land its Falcon 9 rocket on a floating platform and log in with this story.

Landing on a floating platform will simplify the company’s recovery and re-use of rocket engines that will be able to reduce the price of space flight by 30 percent.

 

3. Virtual reality became available

От осмоса до космоса. Научные прорывы года

EPA/UPG

Experiments with virtual reality often require powerful and expensive computers. But the helmet from Sony works with the PlayStation.

To configure it does not need to understand in the engineering Sciences, so it has become easy and affordable.

 

4. The opening of the “ripples of space-time”

От осмоса до космоса. Научные прорывы года

In February it became known that physicists proved the existence of gravitational waves.

Ripples of space-time predicted by albert Einstein 100 years ago, opened during the experiments, scientific collaboration LIGO.

Recorded wave was formed as a result of the collision of two massive black holes, located at a distance of 1.3 billion light years from Earth. Signal physics received 12 September 2015.

When the waves reached the Earth, they shifted the beam of the laser detector is one thousandth of a proton diameter. Obtained oscillations of a group of scientists have converted to sound.

“This is exactly what was predicted by the General theory of relativity,” – said in LIGO.

Now, the scientists offer a new way of isachne space.

 

5. Courts against global warming

От осмоса до космоса. Научные прорывы года

The world is getting warmer, and the next generation will face full with melting glaciers, drying agricultural lands, forest fires and severe storms.

But thanks to the judge of Oregon, Ann Aiken, a group of 21 young people won the right to sue the government for failure to regulate climate change.

The strategy worked last year in the Netherlands, where the court held that the government “must ensure that emissions in the country in 2020 was at least 20 percent lower than in 1990”.

 

6. Found virus beating cancer

От осмоса до космоса. Научные прорывы года

Medscape

Scientists have long known that viruses are able to push the immune system to fight the cancer, but modification of these viruses so that they do not affect our resistance to it, took time.

At the end of 2015 appeared IMLYGIC, he became the first viral drug for the treatment of cancer approved by Management on sanitary inspection behind quality of foodstuff and medicines.

The medication will be used for the treatment of melanoma. The modified herpes virus will be put into the tumor where it needs to trigger a reaction of the immune system cancer.

7. The ninth planet of the Solar system is

От осмоса до космоса. Научные прорывы года

NASA

In January it became known that astronomers first obtained evidence of the existence of the ninth planet in the Solar system. Planet X is about 20 times farther from Earth than Neptune.

She was found by computer simulation in the study of motion of small celestial bodies beyond the orbit of Pluto.

According to the authors of the study, a gas giant whose mass is 5-10 times the mass of Earth could be ejected into deep space, to the outer Solar system, “under the influence of gravitational forces of Jupiter and Saturn”.

Scientists call their discovery the “ninth planet” and I think that in the next five years, astronomers will be able to see it in a telescope from Earth, and it will move from the category of “hypothesis” and our Solar system will once again be devyatiyacheechnoy.

 

8. Protection intelligence

От осмоса до космоса. Научные прорывы года

MacDigger


In April, WhatsApp has launched end-to-end encryption for voice calls and messages due to which intelligence agencies and other third parties has become much harder to track our conversations.

 

9. Created the largest marine reserve in Antarctica

От осмоса до космоса. Научные прорывы года

National Geographic

In October it became known that on the territory of the marine protected area, which will become the Ross sea in the southern ocean, will be prohibited from fishing for 35 years.

The area is a marine protected area will be 1.57 million sq. m. the Ross Sea is two percent of the southern ocean, but it is the largest number of penguins and petrels.

Scientists believe that at the moment the sea is almost not affected by human activity.

The establishment of the USA a marine protected area was supported by the representatives of 24 countries and the EU.

 

10. Found a vaccine against the threat of half the world

От осмоса до космоса. Научные прорывы года

This year, the world health organization recommended that the first vaccine to prevent dengue, and people in such hot regions, such as Brazil and the Philippines, have started to do inoculations.

Dengue fever is carried by mosquitoes. The disease poses a potential threat for about half of the world population. And it infected 400 million annually.

The vaccine reduces the risk of hospitalization cases by 80 percent to 93 percent reduces the likelihood of developing hemorrhagic syndrome, which is the most severe form of the disease.

The world health organization aims to reduce mortality from fever by 50 per cent by 2020, and to reduce the number of infection – 25 percent.

 

11. Inhabited neighbor of the Earth

The nearest star to the Sun Proxima Centauri Proxima discovered rocky exoplanet b, which is located in the habitable zone, and on its surface may be water.

Scientists came to the conclusion that Proxima b may be closest to our Solar system with a planet suitable for life.

Its location could provide an opportunity for “further study by high resolution spectroscopy in the ensuing decades and perhaps robotic exploration in the next century.”

Proxima b is at a distance of 4.2 light years from our Solar system, this distance is equal 266000 distance between the earth and the Sun, which are in 92,96 million miles from each other.

Previously installed exoplanets, as, for example, ultracool constant, located in the star system of a red dwarf TRAPPIST-1, located at a distance of not less than 40 light-years from us.

“It is not only the closest of exoplanets detected, it is probably the closest planet outside the Solar system that will ever be found, because there is no star closer to the Solar system than this,” said the study’s lead author Guillem Anglada-Escude.

Proxima b is a planet with a rocky surface, it is 1.3 times heavier than Earth and only 1.2 times more turns around Proxima Centauri with a period of 11.2 days and is at a distance of 0.05 astronomical unit (7.5 million kilometers) from her.

Despite its proximity to the star, Proxima b potentially habitable, since Proxima Centauri is a red dwarf, its surface temperature is two times lower than solar, and the mass is ten times less.

 

12. Around the world in the Sun

The Swiss plane solar-powered Solar Impulse 2 made to fly around the world. “Impetus” to take turns directing the pilots andré borschberg and Bertrand Piccard.

He began his journey around the Earth on March 9, 2015, and ended on 26 July 2016.

In total, the plane made stops in 15 countries. And set many world records. Last summer, he also set the record for the longest continuous stay in the air more than 120 hours.

The entire Solar Impulse 2 has overcome more than 40 thousand kilometers. At the same time, which he spent in the air was almost 510 hours.

The wingspan of Samolet is 72 meters and its weight is 2.3 tons. It has more than 17 thousand solar panels, of which there are four motor.

 

13. The ozone hole is shrinking

In the middle of summer, scientists reported that the ozone hole over Antarctica shrank by four million square kilometers. The biggest ozone hole over Antarctica, scientists have observed in 2015.

Summarizing the observations, conducted over the past 15 years with the help of satellites and atmospheric probes, the experts came to the conclusion that in the stratosphere a large number of small particles contributed to the growth in the number and size of polar clouds, interacts with human-produced chlorine.

Scientists claim that this is evidence of a gradual recovery of ozone in the stratosphere.

The reason that environmentalists see in the countries ‘ compliance with the Montreal Protocol, signed in 1987 and designed to reduce the emissions of chlorofluorocarbons lower.

 

14. Antibiotic from hell

От осмоса до космоса. Научные прорывы года

In the autumn of scientists said that the milk Tasmanian devil kills some deadly superbugs resistant to modern medicines.

Tasmanian devils are born without an immune system and within the first 90 days they are protected by the compounds derived from mother’s milk. A team of biologists analyzed the structure of milk. As it turned out, the Tasmanian devil produced six types of antimicrobial compounds (man – one).

Scientists tested their effects against 25 different bacteria and six strains of fungi. Connection “won” Staphylococcus aureus, causing poisoning, pneumonia and toxic shock, and Enterococcus, which causes infections of the genitourinary system and meningitis.

They also coped with the fungus Candida krusei and deadly fungus Cryptococcus gattii. Cryptococcus usually affects the lungs or Central nervous system.

Given the tendency to develop antibiotic resistance, scientists believe that soon the infection will kill more people than cancer. The development of new drugs based on the detected antimicrobial compounds can be a good solution.

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