Deputies at the session of the Verkhovna Rada, photo from archive
The original on the website “Support”
At the biennial performance indicators legislative drafting and legislative abilities of the Verkhovna Rada of the VIII convocation is a little better Rada of the VII convocation, however, is inferior to the parliaments of earlier convocations.
The low productivity of legislative work of Parliament
Only 11% of bills was for 2 years in the Verkhovna Rada of the 8th convocation, became laws. Low level of performance of legislative work is the institutional problem of Ukrainian parliamentarism, which is common to all convocations of the Verkhovna Rada. There is a negative trend to decrease the ratio of legislative productivity of the Verkhovna Rada or the lack of tangible progress on this indicator. During the first two years of activity of the Verkhovna Rada of the VIII convocation on efficiency of legislative work is most similar to parliaments VII (2012-2014 ) and IV convocation (2002-2006), which operated during the sharp political crises of the period of independence of Ukraine. At the same time a record is the performance factor of the Verkhovna Rada of the THIRD convocation, the members of which positively voted for 29% of the bills of the total registered.
The President and the government more productive in legislative work, in comparison with MPs
81% of bills initiated by the President for two years of activity of the Verkhovna Rada eventually became laws. Almost a third (29%) of government bills introduced to Parliament, was positively voted on. At the same time, among the registered members of the bills only 7% (every 15th) came into force.
This situation is typical for all convocations of Parliament. The ratio of the legislative productivity of deputies is gradually reduced from a maximum of 16% achieved by the Verkhovna Rada of the THIRD convocation, to 6-7%, as demonstrated by the parliaments of the last two convocations. The ratio of the legislative productivity of the government increased slightly compared with the figure achieved the previous convocation of the Verkhovna Rada, from 25% to 29%, but lower compared to the earlier convocations of the Ukrainian Parliament. At the same time, the President is showing a positive trend and a higher level of performance of legislative work (81%), in comparison with the previous convocations. The probable reason for this imbalance is that the President and the government is much more pragmatic and more responsible use of their right of legislative initiative and focusing their efforts in initiating and promoting a limited number of priority bills.
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There are no significant differences between the indicators of legislative productivity of different factions. The same ratio is low and varies from 3.6% (the”Opposition bloc”) to 13.8% (Radical party). In General, the expected lower productivity indicators of legislative work are shown in the faction that do not belong to the Pro-government coalition, and slightly above the five factions, which was part of the coalition “European Ukraine”.
A quarter of MPs have “zero” level of legislative productivity
The ratio of individual legislative activity only ten deputies is more than 30%. The leaders here are Bogdan Onufryk (“Block Poroshenko”) increased 57% performance, Victoria syumar (“popular front”) with an index of 42% and Gleb zagoriy (“Petro Poroshenko Bloc”) with the figure of 38%.
However, 99 deputies showed zero performance of legislative work in the next two years, despite a significant number of the initiated bills. Antiliderami here are mainly the deputies of the faction “Opposition bloc”. So, Natalie king contributed to the development of the 97 bills, none of which became law. Yuri Malt such bills – 79, Dmytro Shpenov – 69, Alexander Vilkul – 58. Faction Yevhen murayev initiated 90 bills, none of which took effect.
MPs register more bills than able to deal
The vast majority of bills in the Verkhovna Rada of different convocations initiated by people’s deputies, which leads to low legislative productivity of the fractions individually of deputies and the Parliament as a whole. Deputies of the Verkhovna Rada of the VIII convocation for first two years registered twice more bills than their colleagues who worked in the Parliament of the Daleks III convocation. The share of the governmental and presidential bills is minimal and, in comparison with the previous convocations, gradually decreases. The Ukrainian Parliament is different from the parliaments of the countries of the European Union, where the government usually plays the role of initiator of the greatest number of legislative initiatives.
Under the existing regulation a number of laws which the Parliament is limited and relatively fixed value. Relatively speaking, it is possible to set the bandwidth of Parliament – the number of laws that are capable of producing a Parliament within a certain time period. So, for the first two years of activity of the Verkhovna Rada of different convocations, this figure did not exceed 557 laws (in the Verkhovna Rada of the THIRD convocation) and did not fall below 171 the law.
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However, the deputies, registering more and more bills to pay no attention to this limitation and also do not consider the resulting consequences is an additional burden on committees, office of Rada and faction – because of the need to process an increasing number of bills within the same time limits. Deputies do not have time to consider all draft legislative acts on their initiative to enter Parliament, not to mention the possibility of their thorough analysis and modifications.
When you save these dynamics every 8 out of 9 of draft laws, registered by MPs in Parliament, have no prospects of becoming law.
However, there are members who do not participate in the drafting of legislation. So, individual Sergey Klyuev for two years did not initiate a single bill. Only one bill during this period initiated by the individual Konstantin Zhevago and Pavel Baloga and Denis Omelyanovich and Dmitry Dobkin from the party “Opposition bloc”.
What lawmakers are responsible for the current policy?
After analyzing who owns the authorship of the laws that have been adopted by the Parliament during the last two years and which set new rules of the game under the existing legal framework, it is possible to ascertain the share of responsibility of different subjects of legislative initiative for the current policy. Of the total number of laws adopted by the Parliament of the VIII convocation (516 documents), 51% shall belong to the deputies, 34% were initiated by the government and 15% by the President. Thus, despite low productivity indicators of legislative work, members are no less responsible for the creation of current policy and updating the legal field than the government or the President. When compared with previous convocations of the Verkhovna Rada of the trend to an increase in the number of laws passed share of parliamentary laws (from 29% to 51%) and a corresponding decrease in the share of government and presidential laws.
In the context of factions primary responsibility for creating the current policy by initiating new laws is to “Block of Petro Poroshenko” and “popular front”. 71% of all existing laws was adopted by the deputies and the Parliament of the VIII convocation, was developed with the participation of deputies of the faction “Block of Petro Poroshenko”. “Popular front” took part in training more than half (58%) of existing laws. At the same time, their partners in the parliamentary coalition “European Ukraine” (which lasted until February of 2016) participated in the preparation of only one third of the bills which eventually became laws. That is 2/3 of laws have been developed without direct participation of “Samopomich”, the Radical party and “Batkivshchyna”. Their partnership in the coalition increasingly was manifested in the joint vote of the other factions, than in initiation (development) of the joint bills.
Fractional cooperation in Parliament
Community voting factions characterizes the level of consistency of the positions of the factions during the polls. In fact, the rate of community voting shows what the real configuration of the parliamentary majority and whether it is durable.
So, the core of the Pro-government coalition are “Block of Petro Poroshenko” and “popular front”, which is an indicator of compatibility of the voting record is 96%. Main allies these fractions during decision-making remain of their former partners in the coalition “European Ukraine” (which in February 2016 has ceased to exist). The level of cooperation between the two government factions, with the Radical party a little less – 80%, with the faction “Samopomich” – almost 70%, “Batkivshchyna” – just over 60%. After the collapse of the coalition “European Ukraine” the performance compatibility of votes of the factions that were part of the coalition, did not change significantly. The collapse of the coalition was the reason for the reformatting of government and change rhetoric of the coalition factions, but did not affect the behavior of these factions during the polls. The main antagonist is a Pro-government factions “Opposition bloc”, which is an indicator of the compatibility of the polls is 4%.
Improper discipline of people’s deputies
In the Verkhovna Rada of the VIII convocation there are no deputies who took part in all voting at the plenary. Over the two years of the current Parliament held 6726 votes. The median value of attendance of the plenary meetings of all the deputies is 85%. This means that during voting in the Verkhovna Rada on average, there are 358 members. Some of them ignored more than 90% of votes in Parliament. Antiliderami for this indicator are non-faction deputies Andriy Biletsky (attendance votes – 1%), Dmitry Yarosh (3%), Sergei Klyuyev (3,2%), Yefim Zvyagilsky from the faction “Opposition bloc” (7,2%) and unaffiliated Konstantin Zhevago (7.5 per cent).
In the context of the three factions the most disciplined parliamentary groups are the “popular front” (attendance of the plenary sessions – 88%), “Block of Petro Poroshenko” (86%) and “Samopomich” (83%). More than 70%, the participation rate in voting was demonstrated by the faction of the Radical party, the “Fatherland” and “Vidrodzhennya”. The least disciplined is the faction “the Opposition bloc”, which on average took part in 63% of the votes. This means that, on average, in the plenary vote 27 (of 43) of the deputies of the Opposition bloc.
Except for discipline, which consists in the participation/non-participation in voting, the individual manifestation of the deputies is their factional loyalty. Increased loyalty of deputies is the number of votes, when the Deputy position coincides with the position of a majority of the members of the faction. The loyalty of each MP varies from 0% to 100%. Completely loyal deputies (at 100%) no fraction.
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At the same time in each faction’s deputies-rebels, who vote the least disciplined and often deviate from the coordinated position of the faction. They are not perceived as a threat, if the faction fails to provide a stable loyalty of the majority of its members. The difference between factions is only, what level of disagreement by individual members they admit. The highest this figure is from the faction “Block of Petro Poroshenko”, where the distinction of the Deputy Vitaly Chepinoga with the position of most of his faction is at a record 79%. The following are the faction “people’s front” and the “Party “Vidrodzhennya”, where disagreement with the position of the faction reaches 63% (Mr. Denis dzenzerskyy) and 62% (Vasily Gulyaev), respectively. In “the Oppositional block” the greatest rebel is Igor Shurma – 58% voting against the line of the fraction. Against this background, qualitatively different faction of the “Batkivschyna”, “Samopomich” Radical party and where the highest discrepancies in the positions of individual members with the position of the faction not exceed 29% (of the Radical party Andrei Lozovoi – 21%, “Samopomich” Tetiana Ostrikova – 28%, “Batkivshchyna” Andriy Kozhemyakin – 29%).
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