Writer and journalist Igor Pomerantsev in the air “112 Ukraine”
Vlashchenko: Today our guest is a wonderful writer, writer, poet, journalist of “Radio Freedomsand” Igor Pomerantsev.
Hello, Igor Yakovlevich. Many philosophers say that there is no future not only of nationalism, but the state in principle. What do you think about the future world in connection with what is happening today between Russia and Ukraine?
Oranges: Nationalism is a multifaceted phenomenon. It may be a healthy reaction when your nation or your people diskriminerad or repress. It’s always all individually, as with patriotism. Patriotism is individual. It’s love. And love is aggressive, depressive, selfish and sometimes selfless. Similarly with patriotism. Therefore, you should always think about the phenomenon of patriotism, nationalism as multidimensional. For example, Hitler was an ardent patriot, absolutely sincere, he loved his homeland – he destroyed it, erased it into a powder. Leo Tolstoy – the author of a remarkable essay on Christianity and patriotism. All the pathos of this article is the condemnation and contempt of patriotism as a phenomenon. He believes that patriotism is the ideology of those in power. And here’s the paradox – a man who scorned the patriotism, the national pride of Russia. The paradox is that we are judged by what’s done by what is created.
– How you consider, what the outcome for Russia here is a Patriotic “festivities” with I. Terrible, the Prosecutor Poklonski, with the closure of exhibitions and performances, etc , etc.?
– My relation to Russia are interested in the angle of view of psychological and even psychiatric. In classical psychoanalysis there is the concept of “will to death”. Here, from this point of view it is curious to analyze the collapse of empires. Because Russia is no exception – the brutality was inherent in many States, on the eve of the death of that state. From the point of view of psychoanalysis, “the will to death” can prevail. Different can behave in culture and personality. And the writers have spoken about it. Once in the Soviet Union was very mad at Reagan for what he called the Soviet Union an “evil Empire.” He is remembered, Solzhenitsyn wrote the novel “Cancer ward”. It turned out that this name killed it, because the meaning of “Cancer corps” in the expansion, in disease. Cancer needs to capture new areas of the territory, to erect new buildings. Here’s a dark, scary image. We already know what brought patriotism is one of a passionate patriot of his beloved homeland.
– Tell, and the language may be guilty of something?
– Language is not to blame, for me at least. Moreover, language can be not only a tool of propaganda, but of propaganda. I will give an example of the UK. This huge Empire collapsed. The biggest colony of great Britain was India. In India, 350 million people speak English. Despite the fact that there is a national memory, the suppression of uprisings, the struggle for independence, and at the same time 350 million, which owns a Hindi. And this is the most active, creative group of people. It would seem that sensitive area, and in General simple. Language is not to blame.
– What really is the carrier and indicator of civilization of national culture?
National culture includes institutions such as politics. Politics is a product of culture to a much greater extent than the culture of a particular policy. Because the policy articulates itself. This understanding of the state and state institutions, is the language spoken by politicians. The meeting of Parliament and the Russian Duma is very rich material for a writer. And for writers who loved the story, the speech of the characters. Zoshchenko would have rubbed his hands, a genius of the Ukrainian-Hutsul tale V. Stefanyk, too, would be pleased. The ideas offered in the Duma, like the outlines of a democratic language, intellectual terms, but when you listen, before you open the abyss of obscurantism and misoneism. It is necessary to sit and write but I still write poems, like Zoshchenko and Stefanik.
– How do you see modern Ukrainian literature today? If it is ready today for the challenge that await the country?
– It is different. There still is the fossil strata of Soviet literature and Soviet literary thinking. And even the appearance of some writers has not changed. Modern Russian literature is partly preserved. She quotes herself, plays with herself. It is curious for the Russian writer and the reader, but is uninteresting to the outside world. In England, for example, publishes all modern Russian writers, the largest, but it runs no more than 500-1000 copies. They have no resonance because it is a closed, private cultural world of canning jars, codes and passwords distinctive. But acutely modern Ukrainian writers are more open, they are more deployed to world culture. No wonder that some critics compare the magical realism of South American writers of the modern Ukrainian literature Yuri Andrukhovych. It is a completely different dimension, and I judge by the copies just. In Germany, writers such as Zhadan or Andrukhovych, simply known. We are talking about tens of thousands of books. And they publish the prestigious publishers, not like the typical English publishers who spetsializiruyutsya in foreign literature, and they make, for example, Sorokin, and it’s just whales publishing products in Germany. As for the challenges – this is war. I must be blind or insensitive not to understand this. This war is called hybrid, as it includes elements of classic war – murder. Because the language of war is murder. War speaks the language of death. Hybrid warfare involves information war, fifth column. This is a paradoxical situation of the Ukrainian Parliament, which still sit people, who are the enemies of Ukrainian statehood. For a writer of genre searches and solutions – this is the actions of the writer. For writer modern Ukrainian, it is very important to find a new, hybrid genre.
– We are on the verge of a major war or this hybridity will now be included in our metabolism and become a part of our lives for a long time?
– We are part of the world and what is happening now is not only the conflict in Eastern Ukraine. We all now live in a world where changing the concept, meanings, information. It seemed to us that thanks to the flourishing of social networking and computer technologies, the information will enrich our world. Yes, it has enriched. But just always have more consequences. Lost the sense of reality, the credibility of information sources and media. Lost some of the classic criteria, which generally tells us how to live, how we assess. This applies even to our personal relationships – our friends eyes became our enemies: let verbal, verbal. Each time had its terrible problems. In any situation a defensive reaction – it’s ironic to react humanly.
– The ability to be alone more narrowed. A huge amount of information, when you have never immersed – selects it from us the possibility of happiness?
– Happiness is absolutely a personal sense. It is of varying quality. As for solitude, the main thing – to regain their right, their territory of loneliness, and as long as you choose to be alone, and it is not you.
– New communication erase the very idea of authorship, the idea of individual figures.
We come from a culture that was struggling for existence. One of the tools of this struggle – the preservation of cultural memory, cultural codes, the glorification of the classics and classics. Actually, oblivion, along with memory is a very important cultural elements. Cult classics, cult of heroes has to “the will to death”. I’m not against change, and some change in the culture should be.
– Thereby acquired spiritual integrity?
– The word “spiritual” I use only in the literal sense, in the Church. As for what to put in this word, then, for example, the characters of the writer Andrey Platonov is very simple, but, nevertheless, from them comes the light. So it’s not only in the so-called culture, knowledge, or creativity, as understood by intelligent people, is something people either have or you don’t. It’s like a gift. Of course, we need some sincere, intellectual effort. But each is in its own way.
– You will I have something to ask?
– In English the your show Hard Talk – “heavy, unpleasant conversation.” How do you manage to make this a pleasant pastime, and why, after all, the authorities tolerate it?
– Not always my conversations with people are pleasant and mild. Usually, it really is Hard Talk. But there are some people who should just listen. And you just treat this part of people.
Thank you very much, Igor Yakovlevich.