Why is there a revolution

Почему возникают революции

The people’s Deputy Vladimir Litvin on air of TV channel “112 Ukraine”. 09.02.2017

The original visit of Vladimir Litvin in Facebook

In Ukraine is rapidly started the events for the 100th anniversary celebration of the Ukrainian revolution 1917-1921 Rapidly, but unbeknownst to the General public. Managed to differ in their assessment of the events of 100 years ago Petro Poroshenko, and Andriy paruby. Because this revolution is a relatively unknown period in our history, which today takes up very little space in school curricula in history and mostly familiar to those who study it, these leaders began to voice their opinions, showcase their vision. In the end, made a kind of winners history, scarred history of a nation that has demonstrated an attempt of revenge on history through the Declaration of war the obvious facts.

In such circumstances, are not dealing with historical science, and much more – with the political positioning and political fashion, up to arbitrary interpretations of the revolution.

The explanation of this approach should be sought in the fact that the radical part of the society was disappointed the actions and results of operation of the new regime, which, not creating a new structure of the state, and daversa old designs, lays out the way for another revolution.

The Union in a radical interpretation of the revolution, its narrow interpretation is the search for opportunity to strengthen their power.

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In this regard, of particular importance is the need to examine events as they were not in favor of how they want to serve. Need assessment of the revolution is not in the shouts and confusion, and weakened for today voices of objectivity and wisdom, which all make their way through the thunder of the reformers.

The Ukrainian revolution, like most revolutions, was popular, violent, and extremely controversial.

It would have been impossible without the civil war and interregnum.

Turning to the scientific comprehension of the problems of the revolution and knowing that every new story about her harder, and bears the imprint of the political situation, it is very important to first comprehend the theory of the revolution. Given this, I propose to read a brief outline of its vision with the monumental research of C. Pincus “1866. The first modern revolution: popular science publication. – Moscow: Publishing house AST, 2017. – 928 p.”. I understand that not all have enough opportunities, time and effort to browse through such a voluminous edition.

Revolution – events are infrequent, since fundamentally changing the state and society.

Accordingly, their duration is measured in years and is not limited to the usual chronological limits.

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They should not be considered as events but as processes. Which, in turn, provide drastic changes through a radical dismantling of the past and creating new principles. Actually destroy the context, time, change of political leaders and the political orientation of States.

Class conflict is the only side of the revolution phenomenon. If you stand in a different position to defend the class struggle as an essential part of the revolution, then narrows the field of analysis, its scientific value.

The revolution must include the people’s movement.

Events that change state but not the social structure is a civil war, insurrections or coups d’état. It is not revolution. The revolution must include a change in the socio-economic foundations and political foundations.

Why do revolutions occur?

The first explanation is that the old regime leans modernizers. Second – the old regime conquered a new social group that seizes power and rejects the existing structures of state and society.

Revolutions occur when a nation state Matures to the awareness of the need of political modernization and at the same time deepening differences regarding the correct course of updating the state.

Modernization of the state as a political goal and as a political process are necessary preconditions for revolution.

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Under the risk of coups state are in a period when population growth outpaces growth of economic resources. However, neither population pressure nor the need for economic and social reforms are key factors for explaining revolutions.

In all revolutions the old regime ends its existence before the revolution.

Reforms are necessary but not sufficient motive for the modernization of the state. That is why revolutions often occur in the severe competition of various programs of state modernization. Only rapid changes lead to a reduction in political conflict.

The modernization of the state creates conditions for the accelerated maturing regime for the revolution.

Especially dangerous moment for a bad government is one when it starts to look for a way to rectify the situation (Tocqueville).

Revolution, XVII-XVIII and XX centuries passed one by one and the same figure: modernization of the state everywhere became their background. By the way, before the revolution of October 1917 in Russia, Nicholas II launched a major programme of social reforms.

Modernization of the state inevitably increases the contact with the state machine of a huge segment of the population, forming a new politicized people creates an ideological rift when you declare the break with the past.

Declaring the need for radical change, the power to create a favourable ideological space for the opposition – it remains only to say that the selected approaches to reform are harmful to the population and doomed to failure with a huge negative impact on the country.

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Thus, becoming on the way of reforms, government officials completely against his will engender revolutionary opposition. It is clear that it is possible to silence or physical repression or a high level of ideological unity. Modes can line up the Patriotic rhetoric, to successfully put his political rivals in the form of enemies of the nation. Of course, if the Patriotic phraseology will be the cause or consequence of international conflict to stay in power, will be necessary for a military victory.

Why, after some revolutions are set relatively open regimes, in the same time, lead to a more repressive, closed societies? Accordingly, some States become democratic, the other fascist and some Communist.

In England, France and the United States was the place of the bourgeois revolution, where a strong and independent class of urban residents has ensured the formation of a parliamentary democracy. “No bourgeoisie, no democracy” (Moore). In Germany and Japan, there was the development of capitalism without democracy, culminating in “fascism”. To them, modernization was carried out of a strong class of landowners. In China and Russia the revolution had a major, though not exclusive origin from the peasantry.

Revolution, which focused on social, rather than political issues inevitably created by authoritarian regimes.

Revolutionaries always believe in their own position. On their own they do not like compromises and want to force the people to freedom, to be free.

But when the revolutionary state depend on international trade for economic survival, they immediately become dependent on shopping campaigns. In turn, those require the free flow of information to trade. Thus, they are automatically hostile to authoritarian regimes.

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It is the economic and political influence on the international trade campaigns have not allowed England after 1866 and in the US in the early period of existence to take the form of one-party rule.

In a relatively self – sufficient countries-France period Napoleon, China and the Soviet Union – the mountain took authoritarian regimes with one dominant party.

Democracy does not occur if the survival of the state depends on the economic activities of the bourgeoisie. Democracy arises only when the state has insufficient resources to survive without international trade, with the involvement of bourgeois and international economic interests.

Volodymyr Lytvyn

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