A referendum in 1991. As Ukraine chose independence

Референдум-1991. Как Украина выбрала независимость

Exactly 25 years ago, Ukrainians voted in a referendum for independence of Ukraine.

On 1 December 1991, the USSR held a referendum on the independence of Ukraine. Exactly 25 years ago, Ukrainians chose independence.

Корреспондент.net remember this historic day and what preceded it.


The Declaration of state sovereignty of the Ukrainian Parliament declared 16 July 1990.

March 17, 1991 all-Union referendum on preserving the USSR. In Ukraine simultaneously, the Verkhovna Rada has proposed that the inhabitants of the Republic to respond to the additional question: “do You Agree that Ukraine should be part of the Union of Soviet sovereign States on the basis of the Declaration on state sovereignty of Ukraine?”.

The Ukrainians replied in the affirmative as to the first question (70 percent) and the second (80 percent). Authorities came to the conclusion that the public is inclined to independence.

As is known, the Verkhovna Rada on approval of the Act of independence of Ukraine August 24, 1991, prompted the attempted coup that took place in Moscow on August 19.

After the March referendum, negotiations began of the leaders of nine republics, including the Ukrainian SSR, with President Mikhail Gorbachev about the new Union Treaty, which was called Novoogarevo process.

Референдум-1991. Как Украина выбрала независимость

The first contract is planned to sign on 20 August, but on August 19, started the event, called the August coup.

Then the self-proclaimed State emergency Committee set up by the government of the Soviet Union, spoke out against Gorbachev and his reforms of Perestroika.

21 Aug the August coup failed putsch disbanded. As they say Ukrainian historians, the attempted coup only accelerated the collapse of the Soviet Union, which before this “hit” events such as the Afghan war and the Chernobyl disaster.

24 August 1991 the Verkhovna Rada adopted the Act of independence of Ukraine, which States:

The Verkhovna Rada of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic solemnly proclaims Ukraine’s independence and the creation of an independent Ukrainian state – Ukraine. The territory of Ukraine is indivisible and inviolable. From now on the territory of Ukraine are only the Constitution and laws of Ukraine

However, under the legislation, the issue of the right of the people of Ukraine to self-determination went beyond the competence of the Verkhovna Rada of the Ukrainian SSR and was to be resolved exclusively by the all-Ukrainian referendum.

Therefore, on the same day, in addition to the Act was accepted and a decree of the Parliament of the USSR “On the proclamation of independence of Ukraine”, which, in particular, was supposed to be held on 1 December 1991 a nationwide referendum.

A nationwide survey showed that for 90.32% of citizens participated in the referendum, the question of the Bulletin said: “Yes, confirm”.

Референдум-1991. Как Украина выбрала независимость

A positive answer was given by the population of all regions of Ukraine and Crimea, irrespective of their national composition.

1 December 1991 Ukraine has also chosen the first President of an independent Ukrainian state.

The ballot was included six candidates, the winner was Leonid Kravchuk, who stayed in office until 1994.

Референдум-1991. Как Украина выбрала независимость