Diphtheria in Ukraine: the symptoms and treatment of the disease

Дифтерия в Украине: симптомы и лечение болезни

Diphtheria: symptoms and treatment of this disease

The last two years Ukraine has experienced an epidemic of measles, and in October 2019, we are faced with another threat of infectious disease – diphtheria.

Outbreaks already recorded in the Kiev and Zakarpattya region, but in MOZ argue that the epidemic is out of the question.

About diphtheria many people know only theoretically, and some believe that in the XXI century it is simply impossible to get or are convinced that the disease is “light”. Actually, diphtheria significantly more dangerous than measles, and the percentage of mortality from it reaches the rate of 50%.

korrespondent.net will tell you all about diphtheria, namely, the varieties of the disease, symptoms, prevention. Learn how to treat diphtheria in the home.

What is diphtheria: causative agents, the types, the causes of disease

Дифтерия в Украине: симптомы и лечение болезни

Diphtheria in Ukraine / photo: http://zhzh.info/

Diphtheria or diphtheria – an infectious disease that affects the mucosa of the larynx (because reminiscent of pharyngitis or laryngitis) and organs of cardiovascular, respiratory and nervous system. The disease causes the toxin, which produces the bacterium Clostridium diphtheriae. Once in the body, it colonized at a certain place, there to provoke an inflammatory process with a fibrinous plaque.

Diphtheria infection occurs through airborne droplets after contact with infected animals: cats, dogs, horses. Really Contracting diphtheria tasted dirty products using the process of eating is not clean utensils in contact with things which concerned a patient with diphtheria. Some people are carriers of diphtheria bacilli, although the external symptoms of the disease they show no symptoms.

Principal of diphtheria:

  • the oropharynx (tonsils) is the most common;
  • respiratory tract (larynx, trachea, bronchi);
  • nose;
  • eye;
  • genitals;
  • skin.

The symptoms how to identify the disease at an early stage

The incubation period for diphtheria is 1 to 7 days, average 2-5 days.

Symptoms of diphtheria resembles an ordinary sore throat caused by a streptococcal infection.

The patient complains of sore throat, General malaise, increased body temperature. On the tonsils even there is a RAID light grey shade, and if you try to remove it, the wound will bleed. Among other symptoms – swollen lymph nodes in the neck, the mouth appears purulent odor. If the patient has diphtheria of the larynx, he can mix it up with bronchitis, because appears barking cough, wheezing, laryngeal edema, fever up to 38 degrees.

After diagnosing in a patient of diphtheria, he should be hospitalized in a hospital to immediately start treatment. If this is not done at all or not on time, the toxin penetrates into the bloodstream and organs. As a consequence, damage to the heart muscle (myocarditis), nervous system (paralysis of the limbs, larynx, neck). Diphtheria is especially dangerous for young children, because laryngeal edema may lead to suffocation.

The treatment of diphtheria, prophylaxis of disease

Дифтерия в Украине: симптомы и лечение болезни

The treatment of diphtheria / photo: aif.ua

As mentioned above, to treat diphtheria should be under the supervision of physicians in a specialized institution, namely the infectious Department of the hospital.

The patient is obligatorily intramuscular antibiotic therapy (penicillin, erythromycin, cephalosporins), as well as the injection of antitoxin. Before the introduction of the latter, it is necessary to conduct Allergy tests. At the same time detoxification. During the period of treatment is shown taking large amounts of water.

Prevention of diphtheria is vaccination. Despite the fact that no vaccination provides 100% protection of the vaccinated takes the disease in a mild form.

According to the Ukrainian vaccination calendar, vaccination against diphtheria is combined with tetanus and whooping cough. Do vaccinated children 2,4,6,18 months, 6 years and 16-year-olds.

Subsequently, the vaccination must be repeated every decade. If the adult is not vaccinated against diphtheria in childhood, he needs to make at least three vaccinations (first dose, after 2 months second six months third). While pregnant and nursing mothers are also subject to vaccination. Don’t make the vaccine in case of high body temperature, possible manifestations of allergic reactions, those who are undergoing chemotherapy or taking steroids, drugs that suppress the immune system, AIDS.

According to information which operates BOAZ, in 1980, the vaccination coverage against diphtheria was equal to 24%, and in 1990, already 70%. For 20 years, the number of cases of diphtheria declined from 98 thousand to 9 thousand

One of the methods of prevention of diphtheria – hygiene. Doctors advise: wash hands frequently, wipe down items that could get infected, ventilate the room.

Vaccination against diphtheria: what are the possible side effects

The parents at the hearing dose of DPT, but today they 7:

  • DTP (DTP) or ACDs with diphtheria, tetanus antitoxins, pertussis microbial cells. Designed for children up to 4 years;
  • DTaP (DTаР) with acellular (acellular) pertussis component.
  • DTaP (Tdap) acellular with a pertussis component, at the same dose of pertussis and diphtheria are reduced. Designed not only for children but also adults.
  • ADS (DT) – with toxoid, diphtheria-tetanus, without pertussis.
  • ADS-M (Td) toxoid with diphtheria-tetanus with a reduced content of antigens. Purpose: adolescents and adults.
  • The AU (TT) with tetanus toxoid, only as emergency prevention of tetanus.
  • AD-M – with a reduced content diphtheria toxoid, is used for revaccination.

Side effects after vaccination against diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus occur in a small number of people. It can be: redness, painful swelling at the injection site, headache, fever, feeling aches. In rare cases, meningitis, encephalitis. It is worth remembering that the risk of dying from diphtheria is much higher than the risk of a serious reaction to the vaccine.

The Minister of health of Ukraine Zoryana Skaletska said that 200 vials of diphtheria serum, additionally 150-170 expect from international organizations as humanitarian aid. Also 100 bottles you can expect from embassies.

As of November 1, 2019, in Ukraine against diphtheria vaccinated only 39% of children under one year of age, and about 70% of older children. The adult population vaccinated by 52%. Already confirmed 21 cases of infection of diphtheria, 19 of them in October.

It is quite a lot, because from 2010 to 2018 in Ukraine diphtheria was sick only 56 Ukrainians.