Epoch-Making Parker. The greatest discoveries about the Sun

Эпохальный Parker. Величайшие открытия о Солнце

What is solar wind

Every six months, Parker dives into the Sizzling atmosphere of the Sun, making an unprecedented close pictures and measurements of our star – 24 million kilometers, but this distance will be reduced four times.

Astrophysicists presented the results of the analysis of data collected by solar probe Parker, who flew to the star closer than any other camera. Despite the brightness and relative proximity of many aspects of solar physics remain unclear.

In a series of articles published December 4 in the journal Nature, the scientists said about the nature of the solar wind, the acceleration mechanisms of protons and electrons, found not previously observed structures in the plasma of the corona and the relationship of the rotation of the Sun with a supersonic stream of particles. Корреспондент.net tells details.

 

The mystery of the solar wind

To the naked eye from Earth we can only observe a small part of solar radiation, so the Sun seems to us to be very quiet and stable drive. However, on the surface of our star continuously occurring powerful explosions, causing the streams of charged particles and electromagnetic radiation travels at billions of miles around.

This is called the solar wind – a stream of particles, which emits a star. The movement of this substance at some point it becomes supersonic, but leaves the corona of the Sun it at a slower speed. Therefore, there must be a process, accelerating the flow away from the star.

Эпохальный Parker. Величайшие открытия о Солнце

The landmark space mission, NASA for the first in history detailed study of the corona of the Sun was launched on 12 August 2018. The probe was named in honor of astrophysicist Eugene Parker, who described the solar wind, causing the Earth auroras and magnetic storms.

The mission is unprecedented in the details of implementation. For the first time in history a man-made object literally dived into the upper atmosphere of the Sun. Parker flew through the corona of the Sun actually touching our star. In detail about it the material First in the history: Parker close to the Sun.

“These messages show that they are in the unexplored region of the solar system, Parker has already made the greatest discovery,” wrote the accompanying article Daniel Verchuren working as a researcher at space lab Mallard at the University College London.

Parker made three close passage near the Sun and transferred the data in the first two. In one study managed to obtain data on the “slow” solar wind speed of not more than 1.8 million kilometers per hour.

The slow wind comes from the holes in the crown, which are located near the solar equator. “Fast wind” twice faster and it is known that he iskhodit of the large holes at the poles of the Sun.

The instrument probe has also found an unexpected change of direction of the solar magnetic field, going past the probe. Sometimes this field changed direction by 180 degrees, but after a few seconds or minutes, turned back.

These reversals are “movable curves is S-shaped in the lines of force of a field emanating from the Sun.” They increase the speed of the solar wind.

In addition, Parker has recorded multiple explosions of particles that cannot be seen by ground-based instruments. It turned out that the Sun produces tiny a lot more energetic events than scientists previously thought.

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“These measurements will help us determine the sources, acceleration and methods for the motion of the solar high-energy particles, and ultimately better protect satellites and astronauts in the future,” explained David Mccommas at Princeton University, is the lead author of one of the new studies.

Photos taken by the probe, indicate that near the Sun there is a free of dust area. They are not recorded directly, but their existence is theoretically allowed.

Answers to questions about the solar wind was found only partially, and it is unclear why the crown heats up so much – its temperature is hundreds of times hotter the surface of the Sun.

Parker will be in service until the end of 2025. It will approach the Sun closer and closer, thanks to the gravitational influence of Venus on its trajectory.

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