Fantastic laser. For which he was given Nobel in physics

Фантастический лазер. За что дали Нобеля по физике

Using optical tweezers created a color three-dimensional image

The Nobel Committee awarded the 2018 three physicists. They work in the field of laser optics, but do quite different directions.

The Nobel prize in physics was awarded to three researchers for achievements in the field of laser optics.

American Arthur Askino laser tweezers used in biology. Gerard Moore of France and Donna Strickland of Canada – over method of obtaining ultrashort optical pulses, increasing the power of lasers. Корреспондент.net tells details.

 

Laser tweezers

Laser or optical tweezers, invented in 1987, moves the substance with the light – a laser beam of a special form captures individual cells and even atoms. Unlike ordinary tweezers that were used before, cells are not damaged.

“Arthur Ashkin realized his dream of creating a light trap. So science fiction has become reality,” reads a press release of the Nobel Committee.

The principle of optical tweezers is to use light pressure. Small particles have very large surface relative to their very small volume. Therefore, the force of light pressure for them is very large relative to their mass.

Using these tweezers you can even move objects that are located behind an impervious barrier, in the case that it’s transparent to light. To perform operations on cells don’t even have to tear open the cell wall. You can move something inside the cell directly through the shell.

The thus obtained knowledge, scientists used for drug development and disease.

For example, scientists found that proteins that provide intracellular transport and muscle contraction work the “steps”.

Biophysicists have measured the viscoelastic properties of biopolymers and learned to assemble an artificial cell in the ordered structure.

In addition, scientists often use optical tweezers to manipulate individual atoms – for example, in March this year, Australian physicists have measured to hundredths of attonewton force acting on individual atom, and in April American researchers first conducted a chemical reaction between the individual atoms of alkali metals.

In January of this year, American engineers have been using optical tweezers color three-dimensional image, like a hologram from sci-Fi movies.

 

Optical pulses

The second prize was awarded to Gerard Moore and Donna Stickland, which was the third woman in history to receive the Nobel prize in physics after Marie Curie and Maria Goeppert-Mayer.

In 1985 they discovered a method of increasing the power of lasers. It “opened a new field of research and led to widespread industrial and medical use,” reads the message of the Nobel Committee.

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