Favorite Zenit rocket. Musk on the space of Ukraine

Любимая ракета Зенит. Маск о космонавтике Украины

Carrier rocket Zenit-3S

American businessman, whose company has successfully launched passenger vehicle to the ISS, spoke about the role of Ukrainian scientists in the rocket science of the USSR.

Head of SpaceX Elon Musk has said that Ukraine played a key role in the development of Soviet cosmonautics. It is known that a favorite launch vehicle is an American engineer is the Zenith, designed and constructed in the river. Корреспондент.net tells details.

Musk defended Russia in response to its “passive aggression”

March 3 to the International space station for the first time, successfully docked a spacecraft Crew Dragon developed by SpaceX to deliver astronauts to the ISS. On March 8, the spacecraft returned to Earth.

Now the crews of the station is delivered exclusively by the Russian Soyuz rockets, and the success of vehicle Elon musk threatens to turn into multi-million losses for the space industry. Detail in the material Replacement missiles the Union: the success of vehicle Elon musk.

On the eve of the launch of Russia doubted the new system of automatic docking of the Crew Dragon and a few days mulling over the arguments of NASA. From Russia consent was obtained three days before the start.

A few weeks ago, the head of Roscosmos, Dmitry Rogozin, said that SpaceX is unlikely to be able to do rocket engines better than Russia, because “Masks not an expert in this matter.”

“He just doesn’t understand what it is,” said Rogozin.

It Musk said in his Twitter: “I am a chief engineer/designer at SpaceX from the first day.”

The American media was also outraged by the fact that the Russian space Agency has reported only about new Russian gas masks, which were first worn in the time of the docking of the Crew Dragon to ISS, but about the ship or the participation of SpaceX word.

Later, the Russian media wrote about a “high concentration” isopropyl alcohol on Board after the arrival of the Crew Dragon. In fact, the concentration was quite low and soon disappeared.

U.S. press writes about the resentment of Russia, which will be left behind and remembers the words of Rogozin, who advised NASA to go into space with trampolines.

The angry American editions Musk responded that in Russia “the remarkable rocket and the best engine, which now flies”.

In the comments he recalled that the Russian rocket comes from the rocket, the Soviet Union, which, in turn, is based on the works of Ukrainian scientists and engineers, and “for the last 28 years, Russia has not made a space revolution.”

In response, the head of SpaceX, wrote: “Ukraine has indeed played a major role.”

Любимая ракета Зенит. Маск о космонавтике Украины

Favorite rocket – Ukrainian Zenit

In 2015, in an interview with CNN Money, Musk said that his favorite booster is the Ukrainian Zenit. Then on the popular English-language website Reddit had a big discussion on “Elon Musk’s favorite rocket called the Zenit. Are there similarities between Zenit and Falcon 9”.

Users agreed that the similarities between the many missiles – two-stage, fly on the same fuel, similar in appearance and identical in power.


The most advanced missile

Southern design office, located in the river in 1974 started development of the rocket, which power was to surpass the Cyclone-3. New media was created under the guidance of the scholar of Vladimir Fedorovich Utkin.

The plan provided for the creation of the carrier rocket, which has, in the first place, a unique performance properties:

  • the possibility for the advance preparation of the application followed a long period of being in readiness to start;
  • high speed start-up (for no more than one and a half hours after receiving the command);
  • high environmental “purity” and non-toxic all of the components used and gases;
  • high security for all launch activities by implementing the concept of “deserted” start;
  • the possibility of transportation by rail fully assembled stairs without stopping for oncoming traffic, etc.

Любимая ракета Зенит. Маск о космонавтике Украины

Utkin layout Zenith

Initial plans foresaw the creation of a complex Zenit only at the Plesetsk cosmodrome in the Arkhangelsk region. However, in that period, all building capacity of specialized organizations focused on the Baikonur cosmodrome, “zenitovsky” the start was quickly there. The Plesetsk launch Zenit was never completed.

Flight tests of the media began in March 1985. Long-term development of the rocket was due mainly to the difficulties in creating an unprecedentedly powerful engines.

The first launch was assigned an April 12 – cosmonautics Day. The morning of the day in the dining room of the hotel Yuzhnoye SDO on the 43rd floor during Breakfast under Utkin suddenly breaks apart the chair, which is considered a bad omen.

On that day, the launch did not take place due to technical problems at the launch site was moved on the 13th. During the first flight the accident occurred at 410 seconds into the flight, although the purpose of the first start – care from the start – was achieved.

Любимая ракета Зенит. Маск о космонавтике Украины

Accident, Sentia 1990

The first of the thirteen starts, three were emergency. Scientific and technical Council of the spaceport gave a negative conclusion on the results of flight tests.

At fifteenth start 4 October 1990 there was a major accident. Due to the failure of the third of the second flight of the main liquid engine of the first stage of the Zenit fell into the flue of the starting device, exploded and completely destroyed the launch, which was not recovered.

Needed urgent revision of the missile and, above all, sustainer rocket engine of the first stage. It took about two years.

The name of the Zenit carrier received later, when it became a question of commercial use. Prior to that, she was called PH 11К77.

Now Zenit can be used in a variety of configurations: two-stage, three-stage, marine and terrestrial options starts with upper stage block DM-SL and the Frigate, which significantly expands the possibilities of its application.

As abeceda on the website of the South Bureau, the rebirth of Zenit at Baikonur took place in the project Land launch on 28 April 2008 and was marked by the successful launch into orbit an Israeli SPACECRAFT AMOS-3 in the form of a three-stage booster Zenit-3SL on the modernized complex Zenit-M.

“Rocket Zenit – it is the most advanced in the world of rocket that uses non-toxic propellants (liquid oxygen and kerosene RG-1). They are perfect in everything, especially in layout and existing technologies. They don’t fly, although we can start with the work of the Baikonur cosmodrome and with floating cosmodrome Sea launch”, – told in 2016 in an interview, head of Department of scientific-technical information CB South Alexander Loginov.

Floating cosmodrome Sea launch is a former Norwegian oil platform, which is adapted, by constructing a special command ship.

The cosmodrome is located in the Pacific ocean, where the best conditions exist for launch of the carrier rocket with the most efficient use of the Earth’s rotation.


Modifications, launches and new orders

Various modifications of the Zenith was carried out in conditions of the Russian-Ukrainian technological cooperation at the production Association southern machine-building plant them. A. M. Makarov (Yuzhmash) in the river.

Любимая ракета Зенит. Маск о космонавтике Украины

Putin and Kuchma at the Pivdenmash / EPA

From 2015, the production of Zenit rockets suspended.

Zenit-2SLБ two – stage modification. The final configuration of the rocket launches was not used.

Zenit-3SL is a three-step modification. Used in the Sea launch program.

Zenit-3SL is a modification of the rocket Zenit-3SL, modified by the use of Baikonur and use only Russian-Ukrainian components. The first launch took place on 28 April 2008.

Любимая ракета Зенит. Маск о космонавтике Украины

The launch of Zenit from Sea launch

Zenit-3SLБФ – modification of the rocket Zenit-2SLБ/Zenit-3SL. Designed for launch from the Baikonur cosmodrome. The first launch took place on 20 January 2011.

As at 11 December 2015 made 83 runs, of which:

– 70 successful

– 4 partially successful

– 9 unsuccessful.

During the years of independence of Ukraine has made 20 starts.

2 June 2017, it became known that the southern machine-building plant signed a contract with the Russian S7 company Sea Launch for production and delivery of 12 carrier rockets Zenit.

“The contract stipulates the manufacture of 12 boosters for use in Sea launch and Land launch”, – stated in the message Yuzhmash.

Yuzhmash also said that currently in production is two of the rocket Zenit-3SL and Zenit-3SL.

“By signing this contract a major step in overcoming the deep crisis, which remained Yuzhmash since 2013”, – stated in the message.

In Yuzhmash said that the portfolio of orders of the enterprise for the next years exceeds $ 350 million, among the main customers – companies from USA, Italy, India, and South Korea.

In addition, at the end of last year, the media learned that the Russian rocket and space Corporation Energia is negotiating with the Ukrainian southern design office on the launch of the satellite Angosat-1 for Angola.

The Russian side wants to start the machine using the Ukrainian launch vehicle Zenit in the framework of the program Sea launch.

Angosat-1 into orbit was supposed to bring the latest Russian carrier Angara. But he’s not ready yet, so the Corporation is returned to the initially considered version of the Zenith.

According to media reports, the only available launch Zenit stored at the Baikonur cosmodrome. However, the operating period of the warranty has expired, so necessary repairs with the participation of Ukrainian specialists.

In 2018, the Russian company S7 Space became the owner of the project Sea launch, in which the space launch Ukrainian rocket Zenit.

In S7 said it would replace Ukrainian missiles, however, the new Russian carrier rocket Soyuz-5 is still in development, its testing is scheduled for 2024. The company is planning to fly the Zenith.


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