How to recognize pneumonia and to be treated right

Как вовремя распознать пневмонию и правильно лечиться

Pneumonia: symptoms, disease development than the threat

Why pneumonia is considered to be one of the most serious diseases? What symptoms indicate that you need to go to the doctor? And why is it so necessary vaccination?

Pneumonia: symptoms, disease development than the threat

Pneumonia or inflammation of the lungs – a dangerous infectious disease, which is also called “disease immunity”. Who added pneumonia to the list of the most common causes of death worldwide.

Every year, pneumonia kills 1 million children under 5 years. Ill with pneumonia at any time and also infect pneumococcal infection others. Korrespondent.net talk about the diagnosis of pneumonia, on the development of the disease and possible complications after suffering pneumonia.

What is pneumonia, causes of development

Как вовремя распознать пневмонию и правильно лечиться

What is pneumonia / photo: kubnews

Pneumonia can be caused by various bacteria (pneumococcus, Haemophilus influenzae, Bacillus, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus), viruses (influenza, respiratory syncytial virus, rhinoviruses, adenoviruses), fungi and parasites (roundworm).

Most often an inflammatory process in the lungs occurs as a result of hypothermia. Also, regardless of age, at risk of Contracting pneumonia are people suffering from asthma, diabetes, immune deficiencies, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, patients with influenza, tracheitis, bronchitis. Pneumonia can be the consequence of diseases of various organs and systems, complications after operations, and other situations that reduce immunity.

As a result of inflammation of the lungs fill with fluid or pus, alveolar sacs, resulting in ventilation and gas exchange in the lungs difficult. When pneumonia does not have to be struck both on to the same whole. Inflammation can occur in a small area, for example, the alveoli or pleura, then the symptoms in humans would be negligible.

The spread of pneumococcal infection occurs through airborne droplets (coughing, sneezing) or through contact with objects, which was the saliva of an infected by the pneumococcus. Therefore, the common opinion that pneumonia ill mostly in the cold season – a mistake.

Pneumonia is a dangerous disease for all, especially for children under 5 years of age. The immune system of babies are still weak, and therefore to cope with the infection may not always. The older the child becomes, the less he is at risk of Contracting or recover faster. In elderly people older than 60-70 years, the immunity decreases and the risk of pneumonia increases significantly.

The types of pneumonia, symptoms, diagnosis

Как вовремя распознать пневмонию и правильно лечиться

Types of pneumonia / photo: aif

Types of pneumonia:

  • typical;
  • atypical;
  • lobar;
  • aspiration.

Each of the four types of pneumonia starts and develops in its own way. So, cases of typical pneumonia sharply feels unwell: begin to sweat, he has a fever, a cough with purulent sputum, drowsiness, apathy. SARS also starts suddenly, with dry cough, weakness, sore throat, headache.

But the high temperature with SARS is not observed. What SARS is evident in recent years in the season of viruses (influenza virus H1N1, causing dvuhseriynyy pneumonia). Lobar pneumonia is the most terrible of all. It starts with high fever (39 and above), chills, chest pain, dry cough with phlegm.

All of these symptoms, even when treatment is given, keep to 10 days. The only non-infectious form of aspiration pneumonia. Its development is associated with the ingested toxins (vomit, gastric juice, etc.).

Aspiration pneumonia often develops in infants, when the toxins of gastric contents during regurgitation, get inside the organism, as well as in contact with foreign bodies in the respiratory tract due to birth injuries, malformations.

Symptoms of pneumonia can be lightly marked, and they sometimes do not pay attention. For example, we are more concerned about runny nose and coughing are characteristic of SARS. While pale skin, fever, refusal to eat or drink, lethargy and other symptoms lasting longer than 5 days do not raise the suspicion of pneumonia.

Be suspected pneumonia can be for a number of common features:

  • headache;
  • muscle pain;
  • weakness;
  • excessive sweating;
  • high fever, shaking and chills;
  • chest pain when breathing or coughing;
  • shortness of breath (due to extensive lung damage and early respiratory failure);
  • first, there is a dry cough, rolling in the wet that does not stop or is compounded with purulent or rusty sputum;
  • the blue lips and nail beds.

 

Symptoms of pneumonia in children under one year:

  • causeless weeping;
  • shortness of breath;
  • temperature rise;
  • drowsiness, lethargy, lack of appetite;
  • bruising nasolabial triangle, the tips of fingers (particularly when crying, feeding).

Confirm or deny pneumonia using chest x-ray, clinical, microbiological, immunological studies. Further, the doctors set the diagnosis and prescribe treatment depending on General condition of the patient. Pneumonia can occur in acute, subacute (protracted) or chronic forms, in severe cases, possible death of the patient.

How quickly will be diagnosed depends on the duration of treatment and outcome of the disease.

Treatment of pneumonia, complications of the disease

Upon confirmation of the diagnosis of pneumonia, necessarily prescribe antibiotic therapy (orally, intramuscularly, intravenously). Antibiotics can destroy the bacteria that triggered the disease. Until the early twentieth century, not yet invented antibiotics, mortality from pneumonia was way over the line of numbers above 80%. In parallel, assigned symptomatic treatment: antipyretics, expectorants and mucolytic drugs, and antifungal agents, Immunostimulants, vitamins.

It is important to detect pneumonia at an early stage, then the treatment will take about a week or two, and the prognosis will be favorable. When complications arise, the healing process can take 3-4 weeks, sometimes 2 months or end in death. The treatment is carried out in a hospital.

Complications of pneumonia:

  • pleurisy;
  • edema or lung abscess;
  • acute cardiopulmonary failure;
  • myocarditis;
  • endocarditis;
  • meningoencephalitis;
  • meningitis;
  • sepsis;
  • infectious-toxic shock.

Prevention of pneumonia: what to do to not get sick

It is proved that 60% of pneumonia are caused by pneumococcal infection. In addition to pneumonia, it can cause ear infections, meningitis. One method of prevention is vaccination. In some countries, for example in Russia, vaccination against pneumococcal disease is included in the calendar of mandatory vaccinations.

In Ukraine – no. It can be purchased to be vaccinated privately. Officially, Ukraine has only two certified vaccine against pneumococcal infection: “Prevenar-13” (cost at the pharmacy about 2000 UAH.) the British production, as well as the Belgian “synflorix vaccines” (800 UAH).
Source