Hunting to change of places. What the Ukrainians have to offer in Central Europe

Охота к перемене мест. Что украинцам предлагают в Центральной Европе

Migration from Ukraine to the countries of Central Europe, the mass issuance of “second” passports to residents of the Ukrainian border regions, the current realities.

All this creates the additional relations between countries, and forms the basis of future conflicts, write Denis Lavnikevich, Olga Buividovich at No. 14 Magazine Reporter.

“The horror, the nightmare! The country has less than 30 million population!” — like tantrum replicate many sites and even respected experts. And in fact, according to the State migration service and the Ministry of foreign Affairs of Ukraine, working abroad is about 5 million Ukrainians. But official estimates do not include undocumented migrants. According to the company GFK-Ukraine, approximately 41% of working abroad, Ukrainians do it without registration of labour relations. Total score for the number of employed is in the range of 6-8 million permanent and temporary workers.

The reasons for the departure from Ukraine (temporary or permanent) all of their. General a significant part of immigrants — the desire not to go too far to settle in the neighborhood home in one of the countries of Central Europe. The list of preferences in this region includes Poland, Slovakia, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Romania and Bulgaria.

Reporter understood, as these countries belong to the Ukrainians — as part of the terms of employment, education, real estate acquisition and naturalization.

Bulgaria: a Paradise for slackers and investors

This country is willing to accept Ukrainians (of course, in the framework of EU legislation). One of the reasons — bad demographics: local population ages and the working part is actively moved to permanent residence in Spain. However, Bulgaria is one of the poorest EU countries. As they say, “its not enough”.

However, a residence permit will allow them to freely travel to the Schengen countries, and in the future — much easier to get a residence permit in another European country. Ukrainians who moved to Bulgaria, indicate that, compared to other EU countries, here cost of living, low real estate prices and low taxes (10% tax on income — the lowest in the EU). A friend of the Ukrainian — high level of corruption, bad roads, and poorly developed public transport.

To obtain a permanent residence permit, the alien will need to live in the country for five years on the basis of a residence permit. Opportunities to obtain a residence permit lot:

– studying at University or College;

– work under the contract;

– create a new business on the territory of Bulgaria;

– opening of representative offices of the company, already working in another;

– repatriation: to return home unable ethnic Bulgarians;

– to enter into marriage with a Bulgarian citizen or a foreigner living in the country for at least five years;

– investment in the economy for the sum more than 1 million Bulgarian leva (just under $600 thousand), as a variant — purchase of the state bonds or shares of the company;

– buying property worth more than 300 thousand euros;

for pensioners there is a special program of immigration: it is enough to have on Deposit in a Bulgarian Bank a few thousand euros and notarized certificate from the pension Fund (translated into Bulgarian).

As practice shows, Ukrainians are the easiest to move to Bulgaria via the formal opening of a representative office of a foreign company. But the most difficult thing is using the device to work. The Bulgarian employer must prove that such specialist in the country, and at this working place is not meant none of the Bulgarians. He also needs to assign a salary at the level of 1.500 euros.

Czech Republic: I want it people and service staff

In August 2017, Deputy Minister of labor and social policy of the Czech Republic tomáš Petricek said: “Now we have 300 thousand applications from the Ukrainians working in the Czech Republic and up to 200 thousand vacancies for employment of Ukrainians. This means that the number of Ukrainian workers in the Czech Republic will grow. And despite the fact that they are already the largest labor community in our country.” According to Petricca, Czech Republic has about 70 thousand citizens of Ukraine (from 374 thousand working citizens of different countries).

At the end of 2017, the Ukrainians was 40% (118 thousand) legally residing in the Czech Republic foreigners.

The country has a simplified scheme for employment of workers with high professional qualifications for the professions necessary in the Czech Republic. Moreover, on 1 February 2018 Czech Republic doubled the quotas for employment of Ukrainians — from 9.6 to 19.6 thousand And in may it was announced the special program which will allow migrant workers from Ukraine to enter the country faster and easier. If you are able to find a job, the migrant is issued a “business card” — a document that combines a residence permit and a work permit in the Czech Republic.

Other options:

– to enter the Czech University. There is free training, including for foreign citizens, provided knowledge of the Czech language;

– obtain a business visa. At first, registration in the Czech Republic of the company or obtaining the status of a private entrepreneur. First will be given a visa for longer than 90 days, and after its renewal, the foreigner receives a residence permit in the Czech Republic for a period of two years. But the state requires confirming the business, it needs to be profitable;

– you can obtain a special residence permit to the traveler of a foreign company with a branch in the Czech Republic;

– to marry. But the permanent residence status can only be obtained after three years of cohabitation with a citizen of the Czech Republic.

But if you move to the Czech Republic was a success, the Ukrainians can count on a lot of programs of assistance in adaptation and integration in the country. Most popular — free integration course Welcome to the Czech Republic (funded by the Ministry of interior of the Czech Republic). Also available free courses of the Czech language.

Slovakia: waiting for entrepreneurs

The words settled in the country of Ukrainians, it is a kind of “Czech Republic, only more quiet and cheap.” In Slovakia, too need manpower, but a lot less than in the Czech Republic, and wages are lower. So among the Ukrainians, going here, more popular getting a residence permit through the formal registration of their own business. This allows you to immediately apply for a residence permit, simultaneously with the main applicant may request a residence permit, his family. Time from decision to obtain a card of residence permit two to three months.

Other options:

education in Slovakia. A residence permit for a period of training can provide the student with a University education free, as in the Czech Republic;

– to marry a citizen of Slovak Republic or foreigner who has permanent residence in Slovakia;

– to get the job done. Pretty easy — the work permit issued by the employment offices only if you will not be able to find a candidate local. Work permit is issued for a year with subsequent extension.

To buy property in Slovakia, a foreigner is easy, but that does not give the right to request a temporary residence permit.

Poland: all I want

Workers in Poland are severely lacking due to the mass outflow of its own citizens in the past and rapid economic growth in the present. The poles do not hide that do not want to accept culturally and religiously alien to them refugees from Africa and the Middle East, so prefer coming to work Ukrainians and Belarusians. According to the Ministry of family, labour and social policy of Poland, 95% of all work permits in 2017 were issued to citizens of Ukraine. For working visa you need to obtain job from employer directly or through a recruitment Agency.

“Last year we issued 1,267 million visas to Ukrainians. Half of them were permit. Thus, Poland has more than a million Ukrainians because they work in Poland. For the first half of 2018, we issued more than 750 thousand visas to Ukrainians,” — said in 2017, the Minister of foreign Affairs of Poland Witold Waszczykowski.

In Poland most popular Ukrainian workers of different professions — from the seasonal farm workers and construction workers to IT specialists and doctors. The procedure for issuing of work permits a very liberal for the Ukrainians, but also Belarusians and citizens of other countries. The Ukrainian worker is not difficult to obtain a temporary residence permit in Poland.

Other options of moving to Poland:

studies. A student visa allows you to easily make a residence permit and to get right to work. Don’t need to go to College — enough to enroll in a one-year Polish language courses;

– the opening of the business. A fast and easy option for obtaining a residence permit. If the company shows income, you can apply for permanent residence and long-term resident status of the European Union;

– repatriation. Finding Polish ancestors in the pedigree and learned a language, you can get “pole’s card” — a document that facilitates the immigration seriously;

– the marriage. Concluding marriage with a Polish citizen can obtain a residence permit valid for two years, then permanent residence, and another five years to apply for citizenship.

Hungary: not particularly welcome

Settled in Hungary, the Ukrainians are talking about quite high prices and very “problem” of local bureaucracy. In Hungary there are not enough workers, but the government does not welcome migrant workers.

The options of moving to Hungary:

– studies in the country. It can be as higher education and various internships and language courses. In 2018, the Hungarian government will provide 100 scholarships for Ukrainian students;

– the purchase of real estate. Does not guarantee to obtain a residence permit, the foreigner will have to obtain a permit to purchase;

– the opening of the business. The most realistic option for the majority of Ukrainian migrants. To register a company under power of attorney, the language knowledge is not required. Having a business, you can obtain a type D visa, and then apply for a residence permit card. But for the subsequent renewal of the residence permit, the company must show turnover;

– employment — is extremely difficult. You need to submit work permit, work contract and proof of income;

– life in retirement. Ukrainian pensioner with capital to move to Hungary the easiest way. You will need to buy a house or apartment, to obtain D-type visa and in the course of the year to enter the territory of Hungary, and then to issue a residence permit, to prove that the migrant receives income in another country;

– to marry a citizen of Hungary. Under this scheme you can get a residence permit for a month, after three years can apply for citizenship.

But to obtain a residence permit through investment in the economy of Hungary no longer — relevant programme is closed from 1 April 2017.

Romania: to go further

The country’s low wages and difficult employment, she is so unpopular among “guest workers”. But Romania is famous in Ukraine ease of obtaining passport:

– education in Romania. A popular variant of the Ukrainians, although the training is paid;

– marriage to a citizen of Romania. A residence permit very quickly, and after five years citizenship;

– work. To get uneasy, Romanians and EU citizens have priority in employment;

– opening their business and investment in the economy. Will have to get special permission from the Centre for trade facilitation and foreign investment. Need a business plan and the willingness to invest between 100 million euros and create 10 jobs for Romanians;

– “find” Romanian roots. A popular option for residents of southern Odessa region (especially young people). In Romania, active repatriation program, and in Ukraine there are many companies willing to take on the identification of the client has Romanian roots.

But to get a gun permit when buying property in Romania not.

Personal experience

Marina Klimuk, 36 years old, Kiev

I have my own apartment in Kiev, and in 2011 another two-bedroom apartment left a legacy of a grandmother. My husband sold it, and bought three quarters of that amount, cottage in Bulgaria by the sea. The rest of the money invested in its repair and improvement. It turned out very well: since we’re two or three months a year holiday there yourself, family, and the rest of the cottage for rent. But I want to say that such a business in Bulgaria is tied to tourists on tourists. The Bulgarians themselves were very poor, I would say that living in Ukraine is probably better.

Bogdan Sereda, 25 years old, Exactly

I just arrived from Poland, this is the third time I went for six months to work. The first two times at the construction site helped the concrete pour. Now here in Gdynia he worked as a Turner-milling machine operator at the plant. I have a pretty heads, disorders I was never the language has well mastered. So now you can count on long-term residence permit. If we talk about salary per month then manages to save $200-300, but I live quite comfortably. Some of the “workers” of 10 people live in a room with no amenities. It is, generally adult men, which in Ukraine were family. They have $500 it turns out to send, but that’s life for wear. I was lucky twice: not yet family, and the employer intends to groom me to be a good specialist. So do not overload and gives you the opportunity to grow professionally, to learn a new technique. But here English is required, even a simple mechanic. You have to learn in the course.

A second passport? Not

In Ukraine, as stated in the fourth article of the Constitution, there is only single citizenship. That is, the second or dual citizenship Ukrainian legislation is not recognized. However, the Law of Ukraine On citizenship States that even if “a citizen of Ukraine acquires citizenship of another state, not giving up in this case Ukrainian, despite this, in legal relations with Ukraine he is recognized only by the citizen of Ukraine.

Twice, in the spring of 2017 and 2018 in the Parliament on the initiative of the President were introduced the bills, which was trying to include policies and procedures that do not allow a second citizenship/passport. Both withdrawn. Probably because the main objective of both instruments was not so much against the practice of having two passports in the Ukraine, as the settlement of the situation with passports in the occupied Crimea.

On the Western border of Ukraine Patriotic border guards regularly catch citizens who use the Romanian and Hungarian passports. For this administrative offence entails a fine — it sets up the court every time individually.

But despite the risk, Ukraine, according to Eurostat, the number receiving passports of other European countries increases every year.

In addition, a growing number of Ukrainians who received the so-called pole’s card, the order of extradition which is regulated by the law On the pole’s card, adopted in Poland in September 2007.

Охота к перемене мест. Что украинцам предлагают в Центральной Европе


Why take the risk

To not only freely move across the border, but to have the opportunity to work or to conduct business in the European Union. And in Poland “Polish card”, although it is not a passport eliminates the need to obtain a visa, simplifies the job and the business. In addition, having the document as the poles, may exercise the right to free education, to obtain a scholarship or financial aid, have a permanent discount of 37% when you purchase domestic train tickets. In addition, in emergency cases, you can expect to receive free medical care. So bezviz is bezviz, and the “Polish card” — this “Polish card”.

If to speak about those who received passports in Romania, according to the law, anyone whose forefathers lived in the country from 1918 to 1940, or in the territory that had previously belonged to Romania (in terms of the Transcarpathian and Odessa regions (Bessarabia) or Chernivtsi), or are descendants of citizens of the Kingdom of Romania, it could apply for repatriation. But to prove it, you need to collect quite a large number of documents such as birth certificate and the marriage of the parents, grandparents.

If we talk about Bulgaria, Hungary and the Czech Republic, in these countries, passports are issued on a national basis. From the moment of submission of documents to obtain a passport may take about a year. But then a newly minted citizen can count on getting a job in any EU country.

Охота к перемене мест. Что украинцам предлагают в Центральной Европе


Association in Ukraine

Neighbours and active on the territory of Ukraine: here are a variety of non-governmental organizations, foundations and other organisations, declaring its aim of maintaining relations with ethically related citizens, cultural exchange and even financial support to small businesses.

And the very state of Ukraine supports the preservation of national identity of Ukrainian citizens who are not ethnic Ukrainians. In the Western parts of Ukraine there are schools and universities where they can teach children and learn for themselves in the national language. Only one of the Transcarpathian region, as told Deputy Chairman of the Transcarpathian regional state administration Yaroslav galas, 667 secondary schools only 549 with the Ukrainian language of training. “72 schools with Hungarian language of instruction, a 26 — Ukrainian and Hungarian, at 12 — education in Romanian, three in Russian and Ukrainian, one training for Ukrainian and Romanian, Ukrainian, Russian and Romanian languages”, — said galas.

In the beginning of 2018 was adopted by the education Act, which stipulates that training should be conducted exclusively in the state language, while simultaneously learning of languages of minorities remains. The norms provoked a strong reaction on the other side of the border, and the authorities of Hungary and all used this law as a pretext to block the Euro-Atlantic integration of Ukraine.

The centers of gravity

In the Western regions of Ukraine, as already mentioned, there are numerous centers that support ethnic communities. And it’s wonderful cultural connections, education, support small business, but there are nuances. For example, in mid-June 2018 in the Romanian cultural centre the name of Eudoxia Hurmuzachi that in Chernivtsi, paid a visit to SBU and found… a map of the so-called greater Romania, whose territory has been designated and land in Chernivtsi region. The production has been launched at a fairly heavy article of the Criminal code, envisaging responsibility for the violation of the territorial integrity of Ukraine.

In June, the SBU opened a case of separatism against the Hungarian charity Fund of Transcarpathian center for economic development Egan Ede, which is funded by the Hungarian government and gives loans to local businessmen of Hungarian origin.

Before the court in any of these cases is not reached. Meanwhile, in Transcarpathia for the money of Hungary funded education in Hungarian, even the payment of pensions to separate categories of pensioners.

What is happening is unlikely to lead to scenarios like the Crimean is still Romania and Hungary are members of EU. But certain discomfort in international Affairs Kiev, these processes will deliver.

And most importantly in the border areas, creating the infrastructure for export to the West is the most active and young part of the local population. Despite the assurances of the leaders of one of the funds that they aim to put the promotion to “enable people to return from abroad and provide their family with stable income at home, on native land.”

As it happens

Ihor Kiral, studied for a year in Slovakia, košice, University of Pavel Josef Safarik

A year and a half ago when I graduated from school, the parents insisted on me going to the Slovak University faculty of geography. During the six months before enrolling, I began to learn the Slovak language. Once enrolled, settled in the hostel. Wanted to get a job, but due to the floating training schedule didn’t work out. Helped parents. But this time I wanted to return to Ukraine. I also liked the chosen specialty. It was the parents ‘ choice, not mine. The final decision on returning it when I received during the session low scores in technical subjects. After the first year, I returned to Ukraine, I want to go to one of the universities, to become an architect.

Jan Cherevko, Egor’s mom, who is studying in the Vistula University — Inter-Slavonic

We are still a year before graduation, began to look for Egor University. The choice fell on the University of Vistula in Warsaw. Since he knew English, we decided to opt for a course in English. Stopped at the faculty of management, the papers filed in February 2018, the very next day came the answer that the son adopted. Paid in full for the first semester. Issued for son’s insurance and a visa in Kiev, all the other documents involved in the University. In Warsaw took for my son’s room in a one bedroom apartment. On average it takes somewhere around 300 euros per month.
The second course Greg wants to get a job to earn for their needs. The study he is easily given. The teachers are creative. Many practical tasks. No problems what arose. Not the fact that he will remain in Poland.

Jan Dobronogov, a photographer, went to Poland, getting a work visa

Decided to go to Poland. Issued a working visa for six months and thanks to the advice of friends, got a job at one of the warehouses of supermarkets. I live in an apartment together with colleagues, many of whom knew before the trip to Poland. This apartment provided us with the employer, the fee is deducted from the salary. I now earn more than when I was working in Kiev for three jobs. Self-taught Polish language, then apply for a longer period. It’s called “oswiecenia”. However, I do not consider Poland as destination. I think that you will be able to settle down here, and then freely travel and work across Europe.