Nobel prize: who will win in 2017

Нобелевская премия: кто победил в 2017 году

The Nobel Committee chose the most important discoveries, research and processes.

Announced the Nobel prize in 2017 – one of the most prestigious awards in the world.

The Nobel prize is awarded in the fields of literature, physics, medicine, chemistry, and contribution to, the achievement of peace in the world. Since 1969, awarded the unofficial Nobel prize in Economics.

The awarding ceremony is held annually on 10 December. In Stockholm awarded the prize in physics, chemistry, medicine, literature and Economics, and in Oslo – in the protection of the world.

Корреспондент.net says, for which he was given the Nobel prize in 2017.

The Nobel prize in medicine: biological clock

Prize in physiology or medicine went to Jeffrey Hall, Michael Rosbash and Michael young for work in the field of biological rhythms.

“For the discovery of molecular mechanisms that control zerkalnye rhythms”, sounds the wording of the Nobel Committee. Circadian rhythms is the cyclic oscillation of the intensity of various biological processes associated with the change of day and night.

It has long been known that every organism has so-called biological clock. The study of this phenomenon began in the 18th century. The study of the internal clock has become a completely independent branch of science, which is called chronobiology.

The winners researched fruit flies. They have found a gene that controls biological rhythms.

Нобелевская премия: кто победил в 2017 году

 

 

The scientists found that this gene encodes a protein that accumulates in cells during the night and breaks during the day.

Genes that govern the biological clock, opened in 1980-90-ies. They are called: period (a protein that is produced with it, is called PER), timeless (protein TIM), and doubletime (DBT protein).

Merit Hall Rasbash and Yang is that they identified these genes, and analyzed how they work for fruit flies. Thus, scientists figured out how these flies constituted the biological clock – that is, how genes determine their behavior during the day.

Subsequently, they highlighted other elements responsible for the self-regulation of the “cell clock” and proved that the biological clock is working similarly in other multicellular organisms, including humans.

Answer internal clock, including your sleep cycles, blood pressure, hormone levels and body temperature. They affect all life on earth, from unicellular cyanobacteria to higher vertebrates.

What is the use? There are people who have the job of the biological clock disrupted due to mutations in certain genes. For example, they want to sleep at seven in the evening and Wake up at three or four o’clock in the morning. If you can’t afford to sleep at this time, it leads to lack of sleep and all the negative consequences arising from this.

In addition, thanks to the knowledge of the mechanisms it is possible to identify periods when certain drugs are more effective and cause less adverse reactions.

Note that the people who work the night shift, often develop myocardial infarction, stroke, obesity and diabetes.

Theoretically, with this knowledge you can create preparations for the correction cycles and to help people who have to stay awake at a time when the body requires sleep.

 

Nobel prize in physics: gravitational waves

The Nobel prize in 2017 for physics awarded to creators of the international collaboration LIGO, by which was discovered the first gravitational waves, predicted by scientist albert Einstein 100 years ago.

Dr. Rainer Weiss, Dr. Kip Thorne and Dr. Barry Barish with colleagues working on the project for several decades. To made in 2015, the opening was involved thousands of people working on five continents.

About a billion years ago at a distance of 1.3 billion light years from earth, the two black holes with a mass of 36 and 29 solar masses circling around one another, gradually approaching under the influence of mutual gravitation, not yet collided and merged together.

As a result of such clashes there has been a tremendous release of energy – a fraction of a second to approximately three solar masses has turned into gravitational waves, the maximal radiation power of which was about 50 times more than the entire visible Universe.

Convergence, collision and merger of two black holes has led to the confusion of the surrounding space-time continuum and sent in all directions at the speed of light powerful gravitational waves.

By the time when these waves reached our Land (and this was on the morning of 14 September 2015), the once powerful roar of cosmic proportions has turned into a barely discernible whisper.

However, two of several kilometers length detector Laser-interferometric Observatory of gravitational waves, recorded easily recognizable traces of these waves.

Detection of gravitational waves confirmed a prediction of General theory of relativity, albert Einstein made in 1915.

In a scientific environment say that in comparison with premiums in recent years – is one of the most honored awards, because it is a fundamental discovery, which was expected 100 years.

Gravitational waves can be streamed:

What is the use? Prior to the registration of gravitational waves on the behavior of gravity, scientists knew only by the example of celestial mechanics, interaction of celestial bodies. But it was clear that a gravitational field has waves and space-time can be deformed in a similar way.

What we haven’t seen gravitational waves, there was a white spot in modern physics. Now this gap is closed, put another brick in the Foundation of modern physical theory. This fundamental discovery. Nothing comparable over the last year.

After further technology development we can talk about gravitational astronomy – about how to observe the traces of the most high-energy events in the Universe.

 

The Nobel prize in chemistry: cryoelectron microscopy

The Nobel prize in chemistry in 2017 was awarded for the development of cryoelectronic of high-resolution microscopy to determine structures of biomolecules in solution.

Winners were Jacques Dubose from the University of Lausanne, Joachim Frank of Columbia University and Richard Henderson from the University of Cambridge.

Cryoelectron microscopy is a form of transmission electron microscopy, where the sample is studied at cryogenic temperatures.

A popular technique in structural biology as it allows to observe samples that have not been painted or in any way recorded, showing them in their native environment.

Нобелевская премия: кто победил в 2017 году

 

 

When electronic cryomicroscopy the slow motion within the molecule of atoms, which allows to obtain a very clear image of its structure.

Get on the molecule structure information is extremely important, including for better understanding of the chemistry and development of pharmaceuticals.

Нобелевская премия: кто победил в 2017 году

Cryoelectron the image of the Co protein, suspended in amorphous ice at a magnification of 50,000 times

As noted in the press release of the Nobel Committee, research scientists help to improve and simplify the visualization of biomolecules. Cryoelectron microscopy, the development of which involved scientists, “biochemistry moved into a new era.”

“Scientific breakthroughs are often built on the successful visualization of objects that are invisible to the human eye. However, “biochemical card” for a long time remained empty. Cryoelectron microscopy alters that position,” – explains his decision by the Nobel Committee.

Нобелевская премия: кто победил в 2017 году

The arrangement of atoms in molecules: a) protein, responsible for the “biological clock”; and b) the pressure gauge, which is involved in the hearing; c) virus zika

What is the use? It is extremely important to know the structure of the protein, since its mechanism of action is fundamental, because man, like all creatures on Earth – protein form of life.

With the help of knowledge that gives cryoelectron microscopy it is possible to develop drugs that come into interaction with proteins to modify their activity.

You can also think of proteins with new functions, which man has not yet learned to create because there is no knowledge of how it works different proteins.

The two main industries in which useful these knowledge, biotechnology and medicine. This is one of the steps in particular, and to the creation of drugs against cancer.

 

The Nobel prize for literature: the illusion of connection with the world

The Nobel prize in literature in 2017 is a British writer of Japanese descent Kazuo Ishiguro – winner of numerous literary awards, popular and recognized master.

“In his novels incredible emotional power reveals the abyss behind our illusory sense of connection with the world”, – stated in the explanation of the Nobel Committee.

As noted by critics, he received the Nobel prize, as one of the most well-known, respected, widely read and discussed writers of the present and to look for a political subtext here should not be.

Нобелевская премия: кто победил в 2017 году

Kazuo Ishiguro / Getty

All of Ishiguro’s books in varying degrees exploring the theme of collective and individual memory.

Great success came to Ishiguro’s novel the remains of the day 1989, dedicated to the fate of the former Butler, who has served whole life to one noble house.

In this novel, Ishiguro won the Booker prize, and the jury voted unanimously that this award is unprecedented.

Many supported the fame of the writer and the withdrawal in 2010 of the film in the dystopian never let me go, which takes place in an alternate Britain of the late 20th century, where in a special boarding school grow children of organ donors for cloning. In the film was played by Andrew Garfield, keira Knightley, Carey Mulligan. In 2005, this novel is included in the list of the hundred best by Time magazine.

Нобелевская премия: кто победил в 2017 году

Frame from the movie never let me go

In addition they also filmed the novel the White Countess.

Latest novel, the Buried giant Kazuo, published in 2015, is one of the most weird and daring of his works.

It is a medieval fantasy novel in which an elderly couple travel to a neighboring village to son becomes dear to his own memories. Along the way the couple defend themselves from dragons, ogres and other mythological monsters.

British and American critics have noted that Ishiguro (calling themselves not Japanese, and British) have done a lot to transform English into a universal language of world literature. Ishiguro’s novels have been translated into more than 40 languages.

Nobel peace prize: the fight against nuclear weapons

The international campaign for the prohibition of nuclear weapons received the Nobel peace prize.

“The organization receives for his work the reward to draw attention to the catastrophic humanitarian consequences of any use of nuclear weapons, as well as her innovative ideas on achieving a ban on such weapons on the basis of contracts,” – said the Nobel Committee.

The Chairman of the Norwegian Nobel Committee Berit Reiss-Andersen said that now the threat of use of nuclear weapons is at the highest level in a long time.

“Some countries modernize existing nuclear arsenals, others are looking for ways to possess nuclear weapons, a shining example of what North Korea is,” said she.

Нобелевская премия: кто победил в 2017 году

Protest ICAN near the American Embassy in Berlin / Getty

Now in the world there is no full prohibition of nuclear weapons in contrast to the ban on chemical and biological weapons, said Reiss-Andersen.

“My job, ICAN helps to fill the legal vacuum in this area,” said Reiss-Andersen, reminding about the main creation of ICAN – the Treaty for the prohibition of nuclear weapons, endorsed at the UN General Assembly in July of this year and open for signature by countries from September 20.

The agreement was signed by 53 countries, but none of them has nuclear weapons.

The main organizer of the campaign was made by the international Physicians for the prevention of nuclear war, created by Soviet and American scientists in 1980 and received the Nobel peace prize in 1985.

ICAN consists of 468 organizations in 101 countries. The headquarters of ICAN is located in Geneva. Executive Director of the organization since July 2014 works Beatrice Finn of Sweden, prior to that, she was a delegate from the ICAN women’s International League for peace and freedom.

The Nobel prize in Economics

The winner will be announced on Monday, October 9.

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