Playing God and cheating of cancer. Who received the Nobel-2018

Игры в Бога и обман рака. Кто получил Нобель-2018

Who received the Nobel prize in 2018

Announced all winners of the Nobel prize. The award for literature this year not awarded due to a sex scandal.

Nobel for medicine: cheated cancer

The Nobel prize in physiology or medicine in 2018 steel James Allison and Honjo Tasuku for the “entirely new principle” therapy of cancer.

Scientists were able to “trick” the cancer cells and not allow them to suppress the body’s immune response. It has made a real revolution in therapy and formed the basis of a whole new class of drugs.

Allison and Honjo have established “an entirely new principle of cancer treatment,” reads the press release of the Nobel Committee.

“Discovery of these two winners were the turning point in our fight against cancer”, – stated in the message.

Scientists have developed a fundamentally new approach to cancer therapy that is different from the pre-existing radiation and chemotherapy, which is known as “inhibition of checkpoints (immune checkpoint – ed.)” immune cells. In the English language literature about this therapy say that it “removes immunity with brakes.”

The study of these two immunologists has led to the emergence of a new class of cancer drugs based on antibodies, binds to a protein on the surface of lymphocytes or cancer cells.

The first such drug, ipilimumab – an antibody that blocks CTLA-4 (reference point of immunity), was approved in 2011 to treat melanoma. Antibody against PD-1, Nivolumab, was approved in 2014 against melanoma, lung cancer, kidney and some other types of cancer.

Drugs developed on the basis proposed by Allison and Honjo techniques, already successfully applied in the treatment of cancer patients. But more drugs are undergoing clinical trials and will be available in the coming years.

Detail in the material Cheated cancer. For which he was given Nobel prize in medicine.

 

Nobel in physics: a fantastic laser

The Nobel prize in physics was awarded to three researchers for achievements in the field of laser optics.

American Arthur Askino laser tweezers used in biology. Gerard Moore of France and Donna Strickland of Canada – over method of obtaining ultrashort optical pulses, increasing the power of lasers.

Laser or optical tweezers, invented in 1987, moves the substance with the light – a laser beam of a special form captures individual cells and even atoms. Unlike ordinary tweezers that were used before, cells are not damaged.

“Arthur Ashkin realized his dream of creating a light trap. So science fiction has become reality,” reads a press release of the Nobel Committee.

Using these tweezers you can even move objects that are located behind an impervious barrier, in the case that it’s transparent to light. To perform operations on cells don’t even have to tear open the cell wall. You can move something inside the cell directly through the shell.

The thus obtained knowledge, scientists used for drug development and disease.

The second prize was awarded to Gerard Moore and Donna Stickland, which was the third woman in history to receive the Nobel prize in physics after Marie Curie and Maria Goeppert-Mayer.

In 1985 they discovered a method of increasing the power of lasers. It “opened a new field of research and led to widespread industrial and medical use,” reads the message of the Nobel Committee.

Detail to the material Fantastic laser. For which he was given the Nobel in physics.

In 2017 the Nobel prize in physics were scientists Rainer Weiss, Kip Thorne and Barry Barish. The award was given for “a decisive contribution to the observation of gravitational waves”.

 

Nobel in chemistry: playing God

The Nobel prize in chemistry in 2018 gave Francis Arnold – for his work on the evolution of enzymes as well as George Smith and Gregory Winter for creating so-called phage display of peptides and antibodies.

In the message the Nobel Committee says that the current prize winners in chemistry were able to “take control of evolution and use it for the benefit of mankind”, and their discoveries are used for the “creation of new materials, production of sustainable biofuels, combating disease and saving lives.”

Frances Arnold

Their works are widely used in medicine, allowing to obtain new chemical substances – in particular, new drugs and, including cancer, podlivaya human life drugs, environmental fuel.

The method developed by Arnold in 1993, called the directed evolution of enzymes. It lies in the fact that in the sequence of the gene encoding the protein synthesis, randomly introduce mutations, and then choose the protein with the desired properties, for example with increased activity.

Method developed by Smith and winter in the 1980-ies, called phage display. It is used for directed evolution in relation to antibodies.

We are talking about bacteriophages – viruses that can infect bacteria. They are on the surface of proteins, where you can embed code for another protein. For example, the functional portion of the antibody.

In the end, scientists were able to build not one but a whole population is very similar genes, for example encoding all antibodies of a person.

In 2017 the Nobel prize in chemistry were the Swiss Jacques Dubose, American Joachim Frank and Briton Richard Henderson. They received the prize for developing cryoelectron microscopy – method study of matter using ultrafast freezing.

In detail, in the material Control of evolution. Nobel in chemistry.

In 2017 the Nobel prize in chemistry were the Swiss Jacques Dubose, American Joachim Frank and Briton Richard Henderson. They received the prize for developing cryoelectron microscopy – method study of matter using ultrafast freezing.

 

Nobel peace prize: sexual violence

Holders of the Nobel peace prize-2018 steel surgeon from the Democratic Republic of the Congo Denis Mukwege and Iraqi human rights activist Nadia Murad survivors of sexual slavery in the “Islamic state”.

“We decided to award the peace prize to Denis Mukwege and Nadia Murad for their efforts in the fight against sexual violence as a weapon of war and armed conflicts”, – reads the statement of the Nobel Committee.

63-year-old gynecologist and surgeon Denis Mukwege few decades have been engaged in rescue of thousands of victims of mass rapes in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, both in wartime and peacetime. Mukwege is the largest specialist of modernity in the treatment of gynecological injuries.

Nadia Murad and Denis Mukwege

In 1999 he founded the hospital of Panzi in the city of Bukavu in the DRC and operates it to this day. His work was recognized with many awards, including the French Legion of honour award by United Nations human rights prize and the European Parliament’s Sakharov.

25-year-old eside Nadia Murad spent several months in sexual slavery militants of the terrorist organization “Islamic state”.

She managed to escape from captivity and fled to Germany, where she talked about their experiences of violence and engaged in human rights activities. As stated by former UN Secretary-General ban Ki-moon, Murad became the “voice of the voiceless”.

Last year the Nobel peace prize awarded to international campaign to ban nuclear weapons (ICAN). The organization is seeking the abolition of nuclear weapons at the international level and calls on States with nuclear Arsenal, to negotiate the gradual elimination of those weapons.

Nobel for Economics: relationship to climate and global growth

The Nobel prize in Economics was awarded to Americans William Nordhaus, and Paul Romer. First – for the introduction of climate change issues in the economic analysis, the second for research into the causes of economic growth.

Scientists “have developed methods for studying the most fundamental and urgent problems of our time: sustainable growth in the world economy and the welfare of the world’s population”, – explained his choice of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.

Combines both laureates of the treatment of externalities, technological development and climatic processes with the analysis of macroeconomic processes taking place in the global economy.

In the works of Paul Romer’s “external” to the production of technological progress has created, as a rule, a positive effect: new ideas and technologies, as a rule, contributed to the development not only studied, but also in the border areas, launching progress and contributing to a cheapening of production.

In the studies of William Nordhaus the impact of climate change, as a rule, be negative for world output.

Describing the scientific background of the research prize, the Academy notes that both laureates rely on underlying neoclassical theory of economic growth Robert Solow, exploring the most global processes affecting the world economy.

The Academy expects that the accounting for externalities may shed light on the emergence, in particular “errors of the marketplace” and to allow the economic regulators to more accurately take into account both technological and climatic processes in long-term planning of measures aimed at supporting economic growth.

“The prize for achievements in economic science in memory of Alfred Nobel” is not technically a Nobel prize. The inventor of dynamite Nobel at the turn of the 19th century bequeathed the money for awards in five other areas: chemistry, physics, medicine, literature and peacemaking.

And the economy added only in 1969. The sponsor of the prize speaks Swedish Central Bank, not the Nobel Foundation, and everything else it seems: winners are chosen by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, as in the case of physics and chemistry, and reward all at the same time.

Last year the Nobel prize in Economics was awarded to American Richard Thaler “for research in the field of behavioral Economics”. His work explained the economic and psychological analyses of decision-making, and had a profound influence on many areas of economic research and policy.

 

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