The control of evolution. For which he was given Nobel in chemistry

Контроль эволюции. За что дали Нобель по химии

Open Francis Arnold, George Smith and Gregory winter are used to create new materials, fight disease and save lives.

The Nobel prize in chemistry in the year 208 gave Francis Arnold – for his work on the evolution of enzymes as well as George Smith and Gregory Winter for creating so-called phage display of peptides and antibodies.

In the message the Nobel Committee says that the current prize winners in chemistry were able to “take control of evolution and use it for the benefit of mankind”, and their discoveries are used for the “creation of new materials, production of sustainable biofuels, combating disease and saving lives.”

Their works are widely used in medicine, allowing to obtain new chemical substances – in particular, new drugs and, including cancer, podlivaya human life drugs, environmental fuel. tells details.


Evolution of enzymes

The method developed by Arnold in 1993, called the directed evolution of enzymes. It lies in the fact that in the sequence of the gene encoding the protein synthesis, randomly introduce mutations, and then choose the protein with the desired properties, for example with increased activity.

Now it is possible to obtain a large number of different enzymes that are used as biofuel and in the manufacture of drugs.

The gene can be encoded to fermented than glucose, as usual, a closely related molecule – galactose. Nobody knows what exactly you need for this to change, however, in some parts of the enzyme need to occur for these changes.

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Therefore, scientists are the method of selection: the created library, which contains different variants of this gene with different mutations.

This gene sits in the bacteria, which produce the desired enzyme. The living are only those bacteria that produce the most efficient enzymes. This is an evolutionary process, only the system of selection and conditions are created by scientists.

As you know, enzymes can regulate any chemical processes in the body, from cell growth to the formation of organs. Method Arnold can lead to new properties of the organism: the increase in life expectancy, disease resistance, evolutionary change.


Evolution of antibodies

Method developed by Smith and winter in the 1980-ies, called phage display. It is used for directed evolution in relation to antibodies.

We are talking about bacteriophages – viruses that can infect bacteria. They are on the surface of proteins, where you can embed code for another protein. For example, the functional portion of the antibody.

In the end, scientists were able to build not one but a whole population is very similar genes, for example encoding all antibodies of a person.

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Therefore, you can obtain a whole library of antibodies from which to select the most necessary and active antibody, and to make him a medicine.

These drugs have a few years on the market: therapeutic antibodies against cancer, for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis and other autoimmune diseases.

In 2017 the Nobel prize in chemistry were the Swiss Jacques Dubose, American Joachim Frank and Briton Richard Henderson. They received the prize for developing cryoelectron microscopy – method study of matter using ultrafast freezing.


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