Three people have defeated HIV. Is it possible to cure all

Три человека победили ВИЧ. Можно ли вылечить всех

HIV (green) attacks the leukocyte

Bone marrow transplantation from a donor with a rare genetic mutation has cured patients from human immunodeficiency virus.

The researchers reported three cases of cure patients from HIV infection. By March 4, 2019 it was known only about one such case, which was considered the exception or the anomaly. Winning in 2007, the American virus known in medical literature as the Berlin patient.

The journal Nature and the New York Times this week reported about the second man recovered, and on March 6 edition of New Scientist described the third case. They all share a bone marrow transplant from a donor with the delta32 mutation in the CCR5 gene. Корреспондент.net tells whether all HIV+ cure in this way.

 

Who defeated the HIV

According for 2017 carriers of the human immunodeficiency virus are 37 million people worldwide. More than half of them are on antiretroviral drugs and can lead a normal lifestyle.

Ukraine, like Russia and Belarus, is one of the first places in Europe on the incidence of HIV – about 220 thousand infected. Half of HIV+ people in Ukraine do not know their status, and about 40 percent of people with a confirmed diagnosis are in the later stages of the disease.

The first person cured of HIV was American Timothy brown. In Germany 12 years ago for the treatment of leukemia, he transplanted hematopoietic stem cells from a donor with a relatively rare genetic mutation of the gene CCR5 – delta 32, which greatly reduces the likelihood of HIV infection.

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This gene encodes one of the proteins-receptors on the surface of leukocytes bound to the HIV particle. Deletion of 32 nucleotides in the CCR5 gene leads to the fact that the virions can bind to a receptor and a carrier of this mutation, it becomes immune to infection.

Since then, scientists began to try to repeat this achievement. But in each new case the virus came back, and often this occurred nine months after the termination of patients taking antiretroviral drugs, and sometimes patients simply died.

The second heal is the London patient. The man, who asked to remain anonymous, in 2003 contracted HIV, and in 2012, doctors diagnosed him with a form of blood cancer – Hodgkin’s lymphoma.

Три человека победили ВИЧ. Можно ли вылечить всех
Timothy brown, the first cure of HIV / NYT

To cure this cancer can only a bone marrow transplant that doctors at University College London under the leadership of Professor Gupta Ravindra held in 2016 from an unrelated donor with the same rare mutation in a gene called CCR5.

Three years after transplant and a half later, after the patient stopped taking antiretroviral drugs, the tests show no HIV in the male body. According to Gupta, the patient is “functionally cured” and is “in remission”.

The researchers warn that it is not clear whether the main factor is the presence of the appropriate genetic mutation from the donor.

The Professor believes that the disappearance of the virus from the body could also influence the complication that appeared both occur between the ages. We are talking about “graft versus host”, when transplanted material attacks the patient’s body.

The publication New Scientist 6 March reported its third patient, who may have been cured of HIV infection. Like the previous two patients, he underwent a bone marrow transplant from a donor with a mutation in the gene for CCR5.

About Düsseldorf, the patient said researchers from Utrecht University who, under the leadership of Annemarie wensing the transplants. Three months ago, he stopped taking antiretroviral drugs, and still he did not find a viable virions.

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According to the researchers, they see a few more patients with HIV that received bone marrow from a donor carrier of a mutation in the gene CCR5.

Scientists monitor the condition of 38 people with HIV infection who have received a bone marrow transplant, six of them received transplants from donors without the mutation. London patient is under the number 36, Düsseldorf under the number 19.

 

HIV is now possible to win?

Most people with resistant HIV mutation, called delta 32, are natives of Northern Europe. Experts from IciStem have a database that contains information about approximately 22 thousands of such donors.

However, experts say, it does not mean that humanity has learned to treat HIV and it is now possible to cure every. Most believe that such treatment is inappropriate for all HIV-infected persons, despite the fact that not all of them have the opportunity to take antiviral drugs.

The transplantation of hematopoietic stem cells make only when absolutely necessary, because it is not only complex and expensive but also a dangerous procedure which, if not fatal.

It is known that brown, the first sluchivshemsya, given the strong immunosuppressive drugs that are no longer used, and he spent several months after transplantation, suffered from serious complications. He was put into an artificial coma, and at some point he almost died.

In addition, modern drugs allow people with the virus is not much different from healthy people.

Therefore, usually patients who have the opportunity to heal – those who have developed lymphoma or leukemia and for the treatment required these procedures and it was impossible to do other types of treatment. The donor must not only be histochemistry with the patient, but also to have the necessary mutation.

Recall that CCR5 is a protein that Chinese scientist Ho Cisangkuy using the gene editor CRISPR removed from the DNA of human embryos to make them resistant to HIV.

As a result of his experiment had two girls, twins. His experiment was condemned around the world. In detail about it the material Increased IQ: the brain of the children with the edited DNA.

 

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