Ukrainian migrants in Poland: Who, where and how much they earn

Украинские мигранты в Польше: Кто, где и сколько зарабатывает

On the Polish labor market since 2014 there has been a dramatic increase in the number of Ukrainians. Primarily, this is due to the emergence of migrant groups, to travel abroad forced the deterioration of the economic situation in Ukraine, and the armed conflict in the Donbass. However, now there is a bit of a different trend. In particular, in Poland in 2015 arrived much more men (57,9% vs. 32.9 percent among skilled workers), particularly young (average age 32 years vs. 42 in the previous wave of migration). In addition, there arrives a lot more residents of the Eastern part of Ukraine (28,4% vs 6.3%).

Less arrived migrants with children (46% vs. 75.6 per cent) that, as noted in Poland, can lead to a situation where some of them will have no incentive to return to Ukraine and will want to be legalized in Poland or to go to other European Union countries.

The study notes that an important feature of the whole labour migration from Ukraine to Poland is short-term and circulation in nature. Thus, the average migrant from Ukraine to Poland for the 9th time, and the average length of stay is 5 months. It depends on how they fall on the Polish labour market.

The majority of migrant workers find work in Poland on the basis of a registered Declaration of employer about the intention to take the foreigner to work (62.6 per cent). In 2015 for citizens of Ukraine were registered 760 thousand such statements. This figure is more than twice higher compared to 2014. As strong growth was seen in the number of work permits issued to citizens of Ukraine. In 2015 it was issued 50 thousand permits against 26 thousand in 2014. These data show that in 2015 in connection with the work (legal and not completely) stayed in Poland about 1 million Ukrainians. Given the short term nature of the work, it is assumed that at the same time in Poland there were about 500 thousand migrants.

The report’s authors note that the vast majority of Ukrainians who come to work in Poland, have good educated. A total of 37.7% of them have higher education, and 53,94% – secondary education, and only 8.4% have primary education or below (e.g., lower secondary). The vast majority of migrants perform simple physical work requiring no qualifications (70,7%), and the average working time per week is 54 hours, which is much greater than for poles. The average monthly net income is about 2.1 thousand PLN (13 thousand). Most migrants earn working in the building construction sector (2,729 zł).

If you compare average earnings with the number of hours worked, it follows that the hourly rate – about 10 PLN. As the financial advantage of working to provide housing and food.

Migrants are mainly employed in the household (37.6 per cent), construction and services of repair and finishing works (23,6%) and agriculture (19.3 per cent).

In Poland, mostly residents of rural areas (33,6% of the total), and small cities up to 100 thousand inhabitants (39,0% of the total). However, a new wave of migrants, the share of arrivals from major cities.

In 2015, the Ukrainians earned in Poland 8 billion zlotys, or € 1.8 billion

Most of the migrants interviewed said they’re moving the money earned in Ukraine, such 66%. Most often, they bring money to the family personally (60,0%). The average amount of one transfer is about 1,800 (more than 11 thousand hryvnia), and comes every 2-3 months. Sent money often go for current expenses and to improve their living situation in Ukraine.

It is estimated that in 2015, the Ukrainians working in Poland, have earned a total of 8 billion zlotys, or € 1.8 billion, and funds transferred to Ukraine amounted to 5 billion PLN.

Many of those who remit money to Ukraine, claim that change zloty to another currency, most often in dollars (42,5%), the Euro (9.1%), the hryvnia (5.0 percent). The remaining 42,5% don’t exchange and transmit funds in PLN.

Украинские мигранты в Польше: Кто, где и сколько зарабатывает

A separate but also important group of migrants from Ukraine – students, whose number is in Polish universities are also rising rapidly. At the end of September 2015 in higher education were registered 30,6 thousand Ukrainian students. According to the study, half of them, in addition to training, is also active in the labour market. Compared to the rest of the group of migrants, their situation in the labour market is a little different.

They work less time, they often find work in such sectors as trade and public catering. The average earnings of students is 1586 zloty, or 9.8 thousand hryvnia, but here it should be noted that not all working full-time.

Among the students surveyed would like to work in Poland 36,6%, or at least partly to be associated professionally with Poland is 32.5%.

The report was prepared by statistics Department National Bank of Poland. The original watch it here.